Saturday, December 28, 2019

It has been 50 years since the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

It has been 50 years since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 intended to end discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion sex or national origin. It ended racial segregation in the workplace, schools and in public venues, gave all Americans the right to vote, and protection against police brutality. The Civil Rights Act represents a national commitment to end discrimination in education and has resulted in removing barriers to educational opportunities for underrepresented populations of women and people of color. According to the U.S. Department of Education, enrollment for women and people of color in higher education programs has steadily increased. However, gaps still exist between underrepresented student populations with†¦show more content†¦Many of the patriarchal euro-centric structures in place in the US, that are ultimately discriminatory and oppressive, have become increasingly harder to detect and more obscure. America’s educational system has been largely unaffected by attempts to eliminate racial discrimination and social inequity (Taylor, Gillborn, Ladson-Billings, 2009; Tate, 1997). Despite such educational reform attempts such as Brown v. Board of Education, Affirmative Action, No Child Left Behind Act, Race to the Top, and standardized curriculum and testing, many legal and political scholars of color question whether civil rights legislation shows continued movement toward social justice. Instead, it is argued that through conveyance of speech in the Brown decision, the message conveyed was that segregation as unconstitutional was the act of perpetuating the conception that Blacks are inferior, an untouchable caste, unfit to be educated with white children (Tate, 1997). These attempts at educational reform could be considered mere vernacular expressions of goodwill rather than legitimate attempts at equity. As a result of legal discourse combined with historical societal beliefs that Blacks are intellectually in ferior, it is reasonable to expect little benefit of equitable social investment in education and other social services that would benefit underrepresented minorities. Critical race theorists argue that Whites continue to capture the significantShow MoreRelatedThe Critical Race Theory ( Crt )921 Words   |  4 Pages The Critical Race Theory (CRT) began as a form of legal studies by liberals and turned into a movement. The movement is a collection of activists and scholars interested in studying and transforming the relationship between race, racism, and power. The movement walks a similar path as conventional civil rights studies; however, they look at an even broader perspective, such as economics, history, context, and even self-interest. â€Å"Race, Gender, and Social class are all common interests in our AmericanRead MoreCrt 205 Final Project2361 Words   |  10 PagesAxia College Material Appendix E Critical Analysis Forms Fill out one form for each source. |Source 1 Title and Citation: The Cybercrime Treaty Will Improve the Global Fight Against Internet Crime | |Cyber Security Industry Alliance. The Cybercrime Treaty Will Improve the Global Fight Against Internet Crime. Opposing Viewpoints: Cyber | |Crime. Ed. Louise Gerdes. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. ApolloRead MorePrinted Crt Essay1158 Words   |  5 PagesPRINTED CIRCUITS COMPONENTS FOR A JIT FACTORY Mr. Carl Burger, supply manager at Acacia Company, is faced with a problem of researching several electronic components for a new graphic plotter, manufactured in a just-in-time environment. Acacia Company is a major producer of graphic plotters, renowned for top-quality and innovative products. The newest unit in the product line is the 440A, a relatively inexpensive eight-pen, A-size (8 ½Ã¢â‚¬  x 11†) plotter, designed for use with personal computersRead MoreCrt/205 Week 21353 Words   |  6 PagesCRT/205: Mapping Arguments Children in the Backseat Are the Worst Distraction for Driver In this the issue considered is the way of driving with the children in the backseat. Therefore this is a difficult one as the roads will have more traffic and driving is not an easier one. If it is done with children then it will be more difficult as they will be playing inside car and will be a hard task to control them. Then they have various distractions like that of visual distractions, manual distractionsRead MoreCrt 205 Final Paper1576 Words   |  7 PagesAssociate Level Material Critical Analysis Forms Fill out one form for each source. |Source 1 Title and Citation: Cyberbullying Has a Broader Impact than Traditional Bullying | |Uhls, Yalda T. Cyberbullying Has a Broader Impact than Traditional Bullying. Cyberbullying. Ed. Louise I. Gerdes. Detroit: | |Greenhaven Press, 2012. At Issue. Rpt. from Is Bullying Going Digital? Cyber Bullying Facts. 2010. Gale | |OpposingRead MoreEssay about CRT Monitors vs. LCD Monitors1247 Words   |  5 PagesCRT Monitors vs. LCD Monitors The monitor is likely the most important part of the computer. Without it, you would have no idea what you were doing. Imagine trying to write a term paper, or surf the Internet without one. It would be impossible. While the technology powering the displays doesn’t change as fast as it does for other parts of the computer, there are advances which provide consumers with many choices for displays. Today, the most popular displays come in two types, CathodeRead MoreTest Crt Should Be Used Rather Than Norm Referenced Tests1241 Words   |  5 PagesCriterion-Referenced Tests CRT Should Be Used Rather Than Norm-Referenced Tests NRT The assessment looks at the wide variety of methods that educators use to evaluate and determined the achievement of the student’s educational need. The focus of this essay is to look at the Criterion-Referenced Tests (CRT) and the Norm-Referenced Tests (NRT) usage to see why the Criterion-Referenced Tests should be used rather than the Norm-Referenced Tests. The learning standards and the curriculum will be discussedRead MoreCrt/205 Week 8 Knowledge Check Essay957 Words   |  4 PagesWeek 8 Knowledge CheckResults Concepts Moral Theories Mastery 100% Questions Score: 11/11 1 2 3 7 8 9 Legal Reasoning 100% 4 5 6 10 11 Concept: Moral Theories Concepts Moral Theories Mastery 100% Questions 1 2 3 7 8 9 1.Which of the following terms refers to a moral theory that focuses mainly on consequences? A. B. C. D. Relativism Deontology Utilitarianism Virtue ethics Correct! Utilitarianism is based on the principle ofRead MoreLung Cancer Cases And The Evidence Used For Decide Patient s Management1707 Words   |  7 Pagesdiagnosis stage IIIA T3N2M0 Non small cell lung cancer squamous (NSCLC). The patient’s case discussed at the lung MDT, decision was for concurrent chemoradiotherapy. I will be discussing evidence for concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT )in NSCLC versus sequential chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy( RT)alone . Approximately 30% of NSCLC presented with stage III of which 12% have stage IIIA and 17.6 % stage IIIB disease. The 5 years’ overall survival OS figures for clinically stagedRead MoreBussiness in Pakistan1686 Words   |  7 PagesAMB Country Risk Report September 28, 2011 Pakistan Country Risk Tier CRT-5 †¢ The Country Risk Tier (CRT) reflects A.M. Best’s assessment of three categories of risk: Economic, Political and Financial System Risk. †¢ Pakistan, a CRT-5 country, is itself the site of military and terrorist activity. Its fundamental lack of political stability is a challenge to its economic and financial outlook. Economic Risk Moderate Low High †¢ Regional instability and domestic bureaucratic

Friday, December 20, 2019

Physician Assisted Suicide And Ethics - 725 Words

Legality of Physician Assisted Suicide and Ethics Luz Garcia Taunton University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Abstract Physician assisted suicide is defined as a doctor intentionally killing a person by the administration of drugs, at that person’s voluntary and competent request. Research has been conducted in different countries to determine under what conditions this practice is acceptable. Most health care practitioners agree that this is only suitable when the patient in question is suffering from a terminal illness. This study is aimed to examine whether a physician’s responses would differ if physician assisted suicide became legal. A positive relationship is expected to be recorded between the numbers of â€Å"yes† responses if this practice was legal in the state of Texas. Legality of Physician Assisted Suicide and Ethics Physician assisted suicide has been a subject of much controversy in the field of healthcare. A physician’s decision to provide life ending drugs relies on whether or not this practice is legal in their state of residence, the patient’s co mpetence, and whether or not they are suffering from a terminal illness. In a study conducted by Zenz, Tryba, and Zenz (2015), it was found that healthcare providers (physicians and nurses) would rather perform euthanasia on terminal patients over physician assisted suicide. Interestingly enough, this study also found that there is a more general acceptance of this practice than a willingness to performShow MoreRelatedThe Ethics Of Physician Assisted Suicide Essay1655 Words   |  7 Pagespersonal perception of a â€Å"good life† even if they are not hurting anyone else? The exceedingly divided dispute around the procedure of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) asks this very question. Although PAS is reasonably fresh to the sphere of moral matters it is often the main topic in many discussions about proper healthcare and palliative care. Physician-assisted suicide was initially permitted in the state of Oregon when the state passed its Death with Dignity Act in 1994 (Kotva, 20 16). The Act requiresRead MoreThe Ethics Of Physician Assisted Suicide926 Words   |  4 Pagesquestioning the ethics of physician assisted suicide since the late 18th century. According to medicinenet the definition of physician assisted suicide is â€Å"the voluntary termination of one s own life by administrating a lethal substance with the direct assistance of a physician.† This would typically come into play if/when a critically ill patient wants to end their suffering. Confirming with the State-by-State Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide, 5 states have Paquin 2 Legalized physician assisted suicideRead MoreThe Ethics Of An Physician Assisted Suicide2729 Words   |  11 Pages In any event the topic of discussion and the purpose of this term paper is to explore biology and the ethics of this natural science. The topic of this paper is Physician Assisted Suicide; it has been widely debated amongst doctors, patients, politicians and law makers. The question that will be explored is the fact of if this is wrong or right to do. The purpose of physician assisted suicide, as well as how humans manipulated this phenomenon, and the controversy of this topic, amongst other prevalentRead MoreThe Ethics Of Physician-Assisted Suicide1381 Words   |  6 PagesPhysician-assisted suicide can be the withholding of essential care, but it can also be the administration of lethal drugs either by the patient themselves or by a medical professional to end suffering from incurable diseases (Richmond, 2014). Is it fair to make someone live in chronic pain for the rest of their life when there are options? If someone has tried all options to live and have come to terms with no more options, is it okay to help them end their life? The choices do not come easy andRead MoreThe Ethics Of Physician Assisted Suicide1723 Words   |  7 PagesPhysician assisted suicide, the suicide of a patient suffering from an incurable disease, effected by the taking of lethal drugs provided by a doctor for this purpose. The question of whether or not this practice should be made legal in the United States has been one of controversy since 1997. Beginning with the case of Washington v. Glucksberg, where the United States Supreme Court ruled that the matter of the constitutionality of a right to a physician’s aid in dying, was best left up to the statesRead MoreUtilitarian And Virtue Ethics Of Physician Assisted Suicide1314 Words   |  6 PagesPhysician Assisted Suicide Physician assisted suicide or PAS is a controversial topic in the world today. But the important question is, should physician assisted suicides be allowed in cases such as: the patient’s suffering is far too great and there is no chance of them getting better? This is a highly debated issue, that has activist groups on both sides fighting for what they think is the right thing to do. Physician assisted suicides can stop the excruciating pain a patient is in, especiallyRead MoreEthics And Social Responsibility Of Physician Assisted Suicide Essay2503 Words   |  11 Pages Ethics in Physician Assisted Suicide Chataqua Wilson SOC120: Introduction to Ethics and Social Responsibility Instructor: Denise Antoon Augustl 1, 2014 Ethics in Physician Assisted Suicide Physician assisted suicide refers to the voluntary termination of the life of a particular patient. It is conducted through administering a lethal substance with direct or indirect assistance from the physician. The case of physician-assisted suicide has caused many debates.Read MorePhysician Assisted Suicide : Comparative Religious Ethics1783 Words   |  8 Pages Physician Assisted Suicide RST-331-20 Comparative Religious Ethics Brian D. Berry, Ph.D. Fall 2014 Physician Assisted Suicide 2 Physician Assisted Suicide is defined as suicide committed with the aid of a physician who facilitates a patient’s death by providing the necessary means and or information to perform the life ending act. The physician provides sleeping pills and information about the lethal dose, which is fully aware the patient will commit suicide. The patientsRead MoreEssay Moral and Ethics: Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide 1776 Words   |  8 PagesEuthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are actions that hit at the core of what it means to be human - the moral and ethical actions that make us who we are, or who we ought to be. Euthanasia, a subject that is so well known in the twenty-first century, is subject to many discussions about ethical permissibility which date back to as far as ancient Greece and Rome , where euthanasia was practiced rather frequently. It was not until the Hippocratic School removed it from medical practice. EuthanasiaRead MoreThe Ethics Of Assisted Suicide1526 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Physician assisted suicide, otherwise noted as â€Å"PAS,† has existed for many years, however has made a controversial appearance in legislation recently. Patients’ and their end of life decisions have shaped the way PAS has been portrayed today. Nurses play an important role in the everyday life of transitioning patients, which places them at the forefront of assisted suicide. Nurses must have clear and defined rules when it applies to assisted suicide, and what they can do if this

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Her Lifestory free essay sample

Now you can see how successful Concepcion Baylock is. At the age of 12 the young Concepcion was already away from her family and lived with her relatives in order to have a good education. Living with her relatives is not that easy, she had to do the household chores for them to let her stay, and she goes to school at the same time. At a very young age Concepcion showed her diligence in everything she does. When the time her grandparents took her, Concepcion’s life changed because they treat her nicely and they were good to her. However she still tried to help doing the chores because she wanted to thank them, in that simple way she showed her grandparents how thankful she is. As a teenager Concepcion supposed to be hanging out with her friends going to movies, parties, and outings. However she missed this, she would rather save her money that was given by her grandparents. We will write a custom essay sample on Her Lifestory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She doesn’t even buy new things. When she was still in her senior years in high school she already worked by teaching grade school student. Later on she worked as a telephone operator in the United States Naval force in Subic. While she was working she married an irresponsible man, he just let Concepcion doing all the work. Good thing Concepcion successfully gets out of this marriage. She had a child with this unsuccessful marriage. Years later, Concepcion married again with an American who she had a four children. He is the one who helped her to put up her first business, they had a jeepney and taxi concession. When her business succeeded she put up her second business a four-storey hotel, which later on turned out to be a combined hotel, night club, and restaurant. Her ventures succeeded, but she remembers that before she married her second husband she faced many disapproval regarding in her plan f having a business. She never let this bring her down, despite she used this as challenge to pursue more. Concepcion was not still contented; she pursue her education in Manila. She managed to raise her children and run a business at the same time while she was studying. She had a very hectic schedule; she only had around four hours of sleep every day. After she finished her degree in commerce, she proceed to law, and then to a master’s in public administration, and a doctorate in commerce. Concepcion Blaylock is now a president and chairman of Diamond Motors Corporation. As an entrepreneur and a manager Conception knows how to deal with different type of people. She knew how to treat her people properly. She never hesitates to help them, especially those who showed loyalty to her and to the business. She never forgets to credit the companies who trust her. She always makes sure to maintain their trust to her. She never abused her creditor, who trusts her. Today, when Concepcion Blaylock looks back at her past she was very thankful for such an experience that she had. She was very grateful with the things that challenged her more to do more and thought her to be strong. A. Cultural Values| Manifestation of the Value| 1. Frugality (katipiran)| As a child, she saved money rather than buy new things; as an adult, did not immediately buy a car even though she can afford it. | 2. Risk taking (lakas ng loob)| She pursue her plan of having a business even though she knew that she don’t have any formal orientation in running a business. | 3. Amor Propio (utang na loob)| She never hesitates helping her staff especially those who have proven loyalty and commitment. 4. Harmonious labor management relations| She makes it to a point to compensate her people generously with profit sharing schemes and other benefits. | 5. Diligence (sipag)| At a young age, she already attributed this trait, she do the housemaid works and study at the same time. | 6. Endurance (pagkamtiisin)| She was already away with her family at an early age, for her to have a good educ ation. She never let this be a reason for not to achieve her goals, instead she makes this as her inspiration. | B. As a Filipino we were brought up by our parents to have a sense of adventure (pakikipagsapalaran) that is big help in venturing a business. Filipinos were not afraid of trying new things , we intend to be a risk taker. We usually put in our mind that God will help us in everything we do, that is a â€Å"bahala na† attitude. â€Å"Bahala na† attitude is not that bad because we do our part, but we just hope for the guidance and help of God. We Filipinos are well known of having a good relationship to people such as being family oriented and â€Å"pakikipagkapwa†. Filipinos are naturally have a close family ties. This trait is a good thing when you are in a business. Our family serves as our strength because we knew that they will be always be there to support us. They are the one who inspires us to do our best. Filipinos also exhibits the trait of being good to the people around us. This trait really plays a big role in how Filipino entrepreneur manages their people very well. Yes, the Filipino culture and values that were instill in us really help in building our entrepreneurial spirit.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Swing and Bebop free essay sample

Signature music: In the Mood. Played trombone in the Dorset brothers. Played in Ben Pollacks band. Bud Powell 0 piano, Instrumental In the development of bebop. Kenny Clarke C] House drummer at Moutons playhouse. Jay McMahon 0 plants and band leader; his band features the likes of Ben Webster and Charlie Parker. Swing Street CLC reference to 52nd street which hosted major Jazz clubs during the swing and the bebop era.Moutons Playhouse 0 a Harlem jazz club hat saw the emergence of bebop and hosted artists such as Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Christian. The house band included Theologies Monk on piano, Joe Guy on trumpet, Nick Fenton on bass, and Kenny Clarke on drums. Billy Straying 0 famous for his collaboration with Duke Longtime. Billy Bergs 0 Jazz club in Hollywood. Lionel Hampton 0 one of the first to use the vibraphone in jazz. Part of Benny Goodman quartet, along with Gene Koura, Teddy Wilson and Goodman. This group was one of the first racially integrated group to perform.Many renowned artists passed through his group: Dizzied Gillespie, Clifford Brown, West Montgomery, Quince Jones, etc. Earl Hines D The band to follow Duke Longtime at the Cotton Club was Cab Scallywags band. Though classically trained singer in the opera, he always aspired to be in show business. He went to Chicago where he joined the Alabamian, who later changed their name to the Missouri when they moved to New York. Galloway was not a Jazz singer but a showman who surrounded himself with jazz musicians. By the late sasss Cab Galloway was the most successful African American band leader in the country. Milt Hint, Chug Berry, Dizzy Gillespie 0 all played at Cab Scallywags band. Chug Berry was next in line after Coleman Hawkins. When Lester Young was fired from the Fletcher Henderson Band, Berry was the guy to replace him. Jimmy Landlords band was a black band that prided itself In playing dance music with percussion. Sys Oliver, the arranger, was the most famous one to come out of that band. Benny Goodman established himself In New York as a studio musician. He made various records with Red Nichols. When he made records with Billie Holiday, he encountered John Hammond.Hammond invited Goodman to his house to play chamber music, where Benny fell in love with Hammond sister and married her. During the depression, Fletcher Henderson sold many of his arrangements to John Hammond, which became the basis for Goodman band musical library. He later hired Fletcher Henderson to write him some more arrangements. Because Goodman band was the hottest band it aired on the last minutes of a radio show. They went on a national tour and outside New York they found that white people didnt like their music that was too hard-swinging.In order to play something the people could dance to, they played stock arrangements. By the time they came to Los Angels they were ready to Sabina and return home They played at the Palomar Ballroom, ready to play their stock arrangements, when Gene Koura suggested playing something they would enjoy, and they played King Porter Stomp. The show that aired in New York at 1 1 :30, the end of probation. Sing Sing Sing was originally written by Louis Prima, a very light skinned Black musician, which enabled him to perform where other black musicians were not allowed.Jim Muddy 0 Goodman commissioned him to write an arrangement to Sing Sing Sing. The band realized Fletcher Henderson had a similar arrangement called Christopher Columbus. In the end, Benny Goodman version is a mix of the two. In 1938, Hammond had the idea of putting a Jazz concert on a classical stage. These concerts were historically significant because of the first time jazz music was present in a distinguished art form. Benny Goodman was the first white band leader to hire black musicians. He hired Teddy Wilson to play with his trio, after the two met while recording with Billie Holiday.When the band was in Los Angels Goodman encountered Lionel Hampton, and the band became a quartet. The quarter then becomes a quintet when Hammond introduces Goodman to Charlie Christian. Goodman immediately took offense to Charlie Christian and did not want to play with him. Hammond ambushed Goodman to listen to Christian, who established guitar as a solo instrument. Lionel Hampton later struck out with his own band. Roy Eliding, the next in trumpet lineage after Louis Armstrong, was the most influential trumpet player during the swing area, inspiring Dizzy Gillespie.He was also the featured trumpet player in Gene Korunas band. His nickname was Little Jazz. Artier Shaw 0 another famous clarinet player during the swing area. He had a self- identity problem and many times retired and left to Mexico. Shaw moved from playing sax to clarinet, which why his clarinet playing sounds like a sax. Red Nor played the xylophone. He met his wife Mildred Bailey, when he played for Paul Whitewashs band. Bailey is one of the handful singers in the swing era that could be called a Jazz singer. They were nicknamed the swing couple. Stardust by Hobbies Carmichael is the second most recorded piece after SST. Louis Blues. Artier Shahs most famous recorded improvisation is featured in Stardust: it is an example of how some of his music was more dance than Jazz. Jimmy and Tommy Dorset came from Pennsylvania but are considered Chicago style. The Dorset Brothers band was their first together. They were always in conflict. After an argument Tommy walked off the band to form his band. They reunited in the late sasss, and in the sasss they had their own TV show (where Elvis made his TV debut).Tommy Dorset played trumpet but eventually he settled for trombone. His theme song was Im Getting Sentimental over You, which is why he was called The Sentimental Gentleman. His trombone playing was seamless, silky and smooth. Tommy Dorset also introduced Frank Sinatra to the world. Bunny Iberian played with Benny Goodman as well as with Tommy Dorset. He later had his own band but he was a heavy drinker and was not good at enforcing discipline. After Iberian left Dodders band, Tommy had his musicians play Bunnys part in unison as tribute to him.Jimmy Dodders band was more Chicago style than Tommys band. He played both alto sax and vaudeville sax and astonished everyone. His sax playing influenced many, including Charlie Parker. Into the sasss the music stars of the America were the band leaders. The singer got second billing. The first guy to strike out on his own was Being Crosby when he left Paul Whitewashs band. The most popular swing band was Glenn Millers band. Miller played trombone and wrote arrangements for the Ben Pollack band. He also syncopation to familiar tunes. Even though it was the most successful it didnt swing the hardest. Tex Bennie took over Millers band when Millers plane disappeared over the English Channel Miller tried to create a unique sound to his saxophone section by placing clarinet as the lead voice: clarinet lead. In the Mood was Glenn Millers signature tune. It is the number 1 selling instrumental recording written by Joe Garland. AY Clink used to say it would have been better if Glenn Miller had lived and his music die. Important band leader in the swing era was Charlie Barnett, an illegitimate son of wealthy parents.His band was more like a rich mans toy. Like Duke Longtime, he allowed his musicians a lot of freedom. His signature music was Cherokee. BEBOP Bebop is no longer dancing music but music that needs to be listened to. The first natural bebop big band was Earl Hines band. In his early career Hines performed on the piano alongside Louis Armstrong in Chicago. Earl Faith Hines in the early sasss had a big band that was invaded by young beepers. He stole Charlie Parker from Jay Mechanics band. His band never recorded because during that time the American Recording Industry was on strike.In the meantime both Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie were working up the same style on opposite sides of the country (Bird in New York and Dig in Kansas City. ) Monomers Uptown House was another place where bebop emerged. The people who didnt like modern Jazz were nicknamed Moldy Figs. The one responsible for bringing bebop from late night clubs in Harlem to 52nd SST, was Coleman Hawkins. He never changed his own style, but he surrounded himself with young musicians who used his fame to book gigs on 52nd tree. In the Onyx, Dizzy Gillespie kicked Off new tune with a scat o bop, be bop. A music reviewer in the audience related the scat to the new style of music. The drummer at Moutons was Kenny Clarke developed a new style of playing. He explained the development in that musicians were paying so fast that he only played during their pause. This was also true for the piano player at Moutons. Theologies Monk , like Count Basis, realized he does not need to play the rhythm, but simply Jab a chord once in a while, or even Just play notes to outline the harmony. In the bebop withy section the sole responsibility of time lies in the hands of the bass player.The musicians union strike prevented people from listening to bebop on the radio, which shocked them when they heard it for the first time. One of the first bebop records that people were aware of was Charlie Parsers OK-OK. In Earl Hines bebop band there was a young singer named Sarah Vaughn and another singer named Billy Stickiness (often referred to as the black Frank Sinatra). Hines band broke up in 1952. Around that time Stickiness had a huge hit Jelly Jelly. Based on that success, many of former Hines musicians were now part of Stockinets band.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

What made the Industrial Revolution revolutionary free essay sample

What made the Industrial revolution a revolution or revolutionary? † According to Dictionary. com, one definition of a revolution is â€Å"a sudden, complete or marked change of something. † Another definition provided on the site is â€Å"an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed. † Both of these definitions can be applied, at least in part, to the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution was quite different from the other revolutions mentioned in the textbook (Chapter 28), however. The American Revolution took place in the 1770’s and 1780’s when colonists finally dissociated from British rule. The colonists were being taxed due to British debt. They were unhappy with the taxes and trade regulations and boycotted British goods. Lives were lost in battles such as the Boston Tea Party of 1773 and in Lexington in 1775. The Constitution was established granting the new Americans with the rights and freedoms they felt they were not getting from British Parliament. We will write a custom essay sample on What made the Industrial Revolution revolutionary? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They ultimately made a change by fighting to end the British rule over the colonies so that a new government could be established. The industrial revolution was not about battling a government to overthrow it. The industrial revolution was a massive change that had global effects. The industrial revolution ultimately began as Britain switched from wood power to coal power. Deforestation resulted in dwindling resources of wood and the British found that coal was much more abundant. Many inventions of the time impacted the industrial revolution positively. As coal became the ideal source of energy, more coal powered machines were invented. The steam engine, which was designed by James Watt in 1765, burned coal. Ultimately, the use of it became widespread and efficiency was increased. This lead to the invention of the steam powered locomotive in 1815 by George Stephenson. Transportation of goods was suddenly much more practical. The demand for cheap cotton increased and as demand increased, the efficiency needed to increase as well. John Kay invented the flying shuttle, which according to Encyclopedia Britannica, was a device that was mounted on wheels and allowed weavers to weave wider fabrics more quickly than by hand. This invention in 1733 was followed by the invention of the spinning mule in 1779 by Samuel Crompton and the water driven power loom in 1785. Factories also made the production of goods much more efficient. The increased efficiency of the production and transportation of goods lead to a change in the lifestyle of many Europeans and Americans between 1700 and 1900. Populations grew as the standard of living became higher. Children (as well as adults) thrived as poverty decreased, as food became affordable and sanitation was improved. People began to migrate and urbanization occurred. People left the country to move to the cities where factor jobs were attainable. The general way of living changed completely for most Americans and Europeans. The typical American was no longer a farmer living in poverty but instead a factory worker living in the city. In middle class families, men became the main, and sometimes sole, provider for the family. Women stayed home to raise the children and do housework rather than work alongside their husbands as many did prior. Although there were no battles or overthrowing of a government, the way of life changed drastically, arguably more drastically than life had changed for colonists after the American Revolution. People and governments adapted to the industrial demands, much like how colonists changed their government in response to British taxation. The first definition provided may best fit the Industrial Revolution as it was a complete change of the way of life.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

AS Biology Coursework

AS Biology Coursework AS Biology Coursework Below is a short excerpt from an AS biology coursework written on the topic of biological species. The topic is rather broad and serves as an introduction to a narrowed research. Reading the following biology coursework sample, pay special attention to the sentence structure, use of terms, and format. writers are online 24/7 to help you with your coursework writing assignments. Moreover, our free writing blog is full of excellent sample essays and papers. If you need an expertmotivation coursework just follow this link: Species represents a biological balance, and an individual is also a balance or system in equilibrium. Within a species itself, individuals are similar but not identical. The differences are called variations, and when numbers of individuals exhibit the same variation they form a variety. A variety is distinguished from a race because the latter has greater constancy, whereas the former fluctuates in general and tends to disappear, whilst individuals showing such variation engender a line which continues over a larger or smaller number of generations and becomes approximated to the specific type. This is what Galton in 1889 termed "filial regression." Specific characters do exist representing a middle term, and on one side or the other of this average, we find variations which arithmetically follow Gauss's Law, or the Law of Mean Errors of the Calculus of Probabilities. This can be confirmed by taking the more distinctive characters. Thus height, weight, colour of eyes, basic intensity of metabolism, pulse, blood pressure, and so on. In species other than the human we can take for instance the weight of certain seeds, the height of a plant, the number of vertebrae in certain fish, and so forth. The graph showing such variations quantitatively is called a "Galton's curve," and demonstrates that individuals showing typical average characters of the species are the most numerous, whilst divergencies above and below such average diminish in proportion to the degree of variation of the character from the average type. Thus, for instance, the height of individuals: there is an average height, a distinctive feature for each species and t his will be the height of the majority of specimens. There are taller individuals and shorter ones, and the numbers of these outsiders decreases as their height differs more and more from the standard. There is furthermore, as we have repeatedly mentioned, a tendency to revert to the specific standard. Short parents and tall usually have offspring whose height is different from their own and more or less in accordance with the variance of the parents from the average standard. In all of these cases the tendency for "reversion to type," to "balance" in the species, is evident. There may well exist primitive species with a certain degree of stability, fairly constant in form, such as those distinguished by Jordan in 1848 as between the plants and the midpoint of the limits of a Linnaean species. Thus, for instance, in Viola tricolor, Jordan distinguished several dozen various species, independent and stable as regards the transmission of their characters through the seeds: with large, small and middling blossoms respectively identifiable through particular features of the component parts of the blossoms, seeds, and so on. AS Biology Coursework Writing Service AS biology coursework can be a pleasure for some students while it is a real nightmare for the rest. As a result, thousands of students turn to professional coursework writing service offered at our site to get help with their challenging assignments. Our biology writers are able to write customized (written from scratch) coursework on a wide array of topics. We guarantee no plagiarism and no copy/paste! Only original writing! Read also: Expository Essay Essay Writing Tips English Essay Writing Outline Conclusion Writing Cold War History Essay

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 56

Essay Example The various methods that can be applied in the research include participant’s observation. A sample of participants are selected and keenly scrutinised so as to note the characteristics and record appropriately. The other method may include the cross cultural comparison. This may involve the comparison of varied linguistic users basing on their culture. A survey research can also be applied to the research work so as to find the general trend of linguistic aspects. It may also involve interviewing of participants and use of archival research retrieval. Media analysis of the same can be done in order to carry out an efficient historical analysis. There are various indigenous languages that face the risk of extinction. This call for the need of anthropologists to carry out research on the community. In this article, the above methods have been used to carry out the research on pormpraaw which is an aboriginal community in Australia. Native languages which are faced by extinction may be chosen for such analysis in order to prevent the language from extinction. From this linguistic methods analysed from the research, the main objectives of the research are

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Economic History Of The United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Economic History Of The United States - Essay Example Under normal water draft conditions, a barge can carry 2200 tons of dry cargo. Typically a train of 15 barges is pulled through the river by a tow. A one-foot fall in water level requires the loading of each barge to be reduced to 1600 tons to prevent the barges from running aground on sandbanks in the river. This reduced capacity has already caused spot market prices for barge transport to rise by $ 4 a ton. River transportation carries over 60% of US grain exports and 22% of the domestic petroleum and petroleum products. A single train of 15 barges carries as much material as 70 trucks and road transport would not only be far more expensive in fuel cost but also in terms of increased air pollution.  Previously, in 1988, there was similar disruption of river transportation due to drought which led to the construction of dikes on the Mississippi river to release water into the river in the summer months. This year, the Congress has authorized $ 120 million for dredging. River trans portation which is so vital for US commerce still remains subject to the vagaries of the weather.  In our course on The Economic History of the United States, we have learned how the invention of steamboats caused a surge in river transportation of agricultural produce that helped settlers in the mid-west transport farm produce to the population centers in the eastern United States. This improvement in river transportation of materials also led to the development of navigable canals to improve connectivity to the north east.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The painting Drinnen und Draussen, by George Grosz Essay

The painting Drinnen und Draussen, by George Grosz - Essay Example The essay "The painting Drinnen und Draussen, by George Grosz" explores George Grosz's painting called Drinnen und Draussen. There were more shades and the images of the people were not clear. A pillar supposedly served as a dividing wall to visually represent people from the inside, dressed in coats and tie, one with a cigar, and apparently dining in style. These people could be seen as having a good time surrounded by sophisticated and classy ladies. Other objects were clearly painted such as a lamp, a bucket of liquor, an ash tray, to name a few. The faces of the people are all clear exemplifying various expressions of smiling, waiting patiently, listening intently. The colors were also disparate with the outside people being painted in grey, blue, brown, touches of light greens and pinks in matte. The inside portion was more vividly colored in reds, tan, blue, white with clearer and illumined backdrop. One could deduce that the painter intended to relay the message that people se en inside dining places had the luxuries of availing the best of life. The people inside with faces painted in round, clear and donning happy expressions and are well-dressed signify wealth, luxury, richness. The dividing wall also symbolize the demarcation between the rich and the poor – as people from the outside manifest poverty, wanting in financial resources and appropriate access to health care. Their faces were painted as blurred symbolizing obscurity, loss of identity, nameless. The realities of life at the time.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Gender Mainstreaming: Impact and Effects

Gender Mainstreaming: Impact and Effects The Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 approved gender mainstreaming as a key strategy for promoting equality between women and men. Many international organizations including the United Nation were entitled to implement the strategy in their work. In 1997 the Economic and Social Council provided concrete guidelines on how the United Nations should work to incorporate gender perspectives in its work programmes (ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions 1997/2). The importance of the gender mainstreaming strategy was reinforced in the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly to follow-up the implementation of the Platform for Action (June 2000). The strong focus on the advancement of women and gender equality has led to increased international recognition of the importance of gender perspectives, such as poverty reduction, human rights and good governance. Moreover, these perspectives must be taken into account in data collection, analysis, policy making and planning, to ensure the achievement of gender equality, effective and sustainable development and peace and security. Although, it is easy to secure agreement for gender mainstreaming as an important strategy for promoting gender equality, implementation of this strategy has proven more difficult than its predictions. The implementation of gender mainstreaming can primarily require significant changes in how business is done. Trying to bring the realities of both women and men to bear on data collection, analysis, planning and monitoring in all areas of development, requires specific knowledge and capacity. Gender Mainstreaming Definition: the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making womens as well as mens concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. (ECOSOC 1997) Meaning that, gender mainstreaming in all decisions, will take into account that there are women and men in different situations; which will prevent discrimination between the sexes. It is not about few individuales dealing with gender issues, but all individuals are challenged to think about this equality between women and men. Never the less, gender mainstreaming is a strategy to ensure that equality is realized as a state responsibility. However, gender means is not about being women or men, it is taking into considiration the variety and diversity of people, for the reason that we live in a world that is impacted by the allocation of gender roles. People are judged by their behaver based on gender expectations. Therefore, gender mainstreaming is an organizing principle, gender is the analytical point for gender-sensitive work, and equality is the goal to be achieved. The dimensions of gender mainstreaming: Gender mainstreaming is both of gendered political and policy practice and a new gendered strategy for theory of development. As a practice, gender mainstreaming is a practice to promote gender equality. It is also intended to improve the effectively of mainlines of policy by making visible the gendered nature of assumption, process and outcomes. However, as a form of theory gender mainstreaming is a process of revision of key concept to grasp more adequate a world that is gendered, rather than establishing a separate gender theory. (Walby 2005). Reasons for implementation of gender mainstreaming: Gender mainstreaming is not an end in itself, but a means to an end. (Vijayakumar 2006). Gender mainstreaming does not involve developing separate womens projects within work programmes, or even womens components within existing activities in the work programmes. It requires an attention to gender perspectives as an integral part of all activities across all programmes. This involves making gender perspectives more central to all policy development, research, development, implementation and monitoring of norms and standards. It is important to see the linkages between gender mainstreaming and the promotion of equal opportunities and gender balance within the organization itself. Organizational culture and organizational values are important in terms of creating work environments which are encouraging to gender mainstreaming. The gender mainstreaming strategy does not mean that targeted activities to support women are no longer necessary. Such activities specifically target womens priorities and needs, through, legislation and policy development. Women-specific projects play an important role in promoting gender equality. They are needed because gender equality has not yet been attained and gender mainstreaming processes are not well developed. Gender mainstreaming strategies and gender equality strategies are important for reducing existing gaps, serving as a channel for promotion of gender equality and creating a constituency for changing the mainstream. Gender mainstreaming can create an empowering space for women. Gender mainstreaming strategies, that focuses on men support promotion of gender equality by developing male buddies. It is vital to understand that these two strategies, gender mainstreaming and womens empowerment, are in no way in competition with each other. (Braams 2007). Gender empowerment strategies have worked for year on capacity building for women themselves. However, Gender mainstreaming can be one of the most effective Strategies supporting gender equality. Gender mainstreaming is a way of ensuring that policy and decision-making take account of womens and mens different interests and needs. For gender mainstreaming, decision-making on policy measures and priorities has to be organized in a way as to do justice to the differences between men and women. (EC 2007). Gender mainstreaming policy should respond to changes in requirements, interest and perception with regard to womens and mens social roles, as it promotes equality. Moreover, it cant be accomplishes by one actor, it is a combination on individuals and organizations at all level. Gender Mainstreaming helps in the following qualities at work; first, gender mainstreaming it focus on equitable distribution of resources between women and men. Second, Gender mainstreaming supports for equal opportunities policy at all levels of the organization. Third, Gender mainstreaming supports for equal opportunities policy at all levels of the organization; engendering of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Never the less, Gender equality and the right to equal participation in all sectors of society are fundamental Human Rights. Gender mainstreaming is a process for ensuring equity, equality and gender justice in all of the critical areas of the lives of women and men. (Vijayakumar 2006). Moreover, it increases the effectiveness and eficiency of the work. It is known that men are more rational and women are more emotional, lets asume the assumption, then the brainstorming and decisions made will be better if they are taken by both sexes. The Implementation: Gender mainstreaming should be implemented at two levels; the organization and organization programmes, in order to benefit from it the most.( World Bank 2003). The Organization: In order for and organization to contribute to greater gender equality should have the following structures, policies and procedures in place. First, a clear policy on its commitment on gender police, and it is supported by senior and middle management. Second, Human resources practices that is sensitive to the gender needs and interests of both women and men on the organizations staff, as well as in their constituency. Third, Internal tracking and monitoring capacity to ensure that the strategy is being reached, and this may include some monitoring on staff recruitment and promotions and the performance of managers and supervisors in discussing and following up on gender equality initiatives. Fourth, a central gender mainstreaming unit with policy responsibility and mandate to guide the overall gender mainstreaming process. Finally, a recognized network of staff responsible for gender equality issues in their respective work units, coordinated as a team by the policy unit. The organizations programme: Effective gender mainstreaming strategy therefore includes at least the following programming elements. First, Project management that is technically proficient, aware of the implications of gender differences for project outcomes, remains in touch with the constituency, and establishes positive incentive and accountability mechanisms to ensure consistent results is extremely important. Second, an effective monitoring and reporting mechanisms capable of reflecting how far the project is contributing to greater gender equality. Finally, Gender analysis that explores the national and international context in which the concerned communities are operating, clarifies the ways in which this context impacts differently on women and men and the implications of these differences for project activity. However, hat might appear to be minor actions actually represent major life-changing moves for women and men, given the dynamics that existed before gender mainstreamed programmes. Given the traditional and financial constraints hat combine to keep women a safe distance from making the inconsequential decisions and choices, these seemingly small-step decisions are massive. Gender mainstreaming outcomes and benefits: Women are not newcomers to the working world as some may believe, but their role is changing, as are the socials values. Historically womens work has been relegated to the home. But, it was not always so, for most of human history, work and the rest of life were completely integratedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦with the industrial revolution, the workplace moved out of the family, homeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the workplace became mens domain; and women came to bear the responsibility of supporting the family. (Rao, Stuart, Kelleher.1999) Today, women account for nearly fifty percent of the workforce but for less than 4 per cent of the nations top executives. Women managers are clustered into administrative and support functions. (Kaila.2005) Gender mainstreaming can be associated with many benefits including: assisting in achieving better gender data collection and analysis, ensures economic security for both sexes, achieving equal value for paid work, achieving a gender balance and achieving equal participation of women and men the rights of women and men. (Rea 2007) First, assists in achieving better gender data collection and analysis; this will inform the integration of a gender perspective in the development of all organizations policies, processes, systems and structures. It will also provide the gender analysis which is critical to the development of effective gender action measures to tackle specific gender inequalities Second, ensures the economic security of both men and women, as it addresses the gender inequalities which lead to poverty. Third, achieving equal value for paid work, equity, done by women and men; including the equitable sharing of work and family and caring responsibilities. Fourth, achieving a gender balance, on all level of the organization. Fifth, ensures the active and equal participation of women and men at all levels of organization. Finally, promotes and protects the rights of women and men by increasing awareness of their different needs and potential to have the same opportunity to live a fulfilled life. Never the less, Gender mainstreaming can be associated with many benefits including: Quality improvements enhance the effectiveness of the administration process, Enhance participation process, financial benefits and improve the organizations image. Limitations and restrictions on gender mainstreaming: The limitations of gender mainstreaming are easy to solve, but their solutions are costly. Main limitations are identifying partner, commitment of senior management, fund raising, instruments and up- to date data on gender issues. (Taylor 1999). First, to effective implementation of gender mainstreaming partners are requires, identifying them, raising their awareness of the importance of this concept and making them write reports Second, commitment of senior managers is absolutely necessary. If senior managers pass on the message, support it and strengthen it, half the way is achieved. However, senior managers are generally only convinced to convey a message if their political superiors are committed to a cause. Third, Gender mainstreaming is an investment in the overall quality of policy. The costs of this quality improvement should therefore be counted as regular policy costs. Staff, experts and budgets should be made available Fourth, adequate instruments of measurements, manuals, monitoring procedures and evaluation procedures for gender mainstreaming should be tailored to the address the organizations needs. This will need experts to perform them. Fifth, in order to benefit from gender mainstreaming implementation, staff members should have up-to-date knowledge and awareness of gender issues. Hiring experts to keep monitoring the updated material about gender issues and presenting it to the staff can be the solution and may be costly. Conclusion: Equality, which is the corner stone of democratic nations, successful organizations and a basic human right, are time and space dependent phenomena. At least three historical waves of approaches to equality between the sexes can be distinguished (Ress, 1998). Through the strategy of gender mainstreaming, different realities of women and men are aware of and made clear, the observance of the gender perspective is an essential decision criterion for suitability and quality of the measure. The gender mainstreaming process makes no institutional gender politics unnecessary, as shown by the present analysis indicates that women are disadvantaged in many areas yet. The instrument of women is therefore still need to be applied long! What is new is that the gender mainstreaming approach also includes the situation of the men in our society in the analysis. A major obstacle to successful mainstreaming is the attitudes and cultures in our development organizations, which carry the baggage of their own quite traditional male cultures of work and power. These attitudes and cultures continue to be transferred in practice at home and in the field. Finally, International Labor organization should strengthen its policy and programmes on gender equality and decent work, support gender sensitive policy formulation, work with governments and social partners on employment and job creation, strive to improve the understanding and application of the principle of equal remuneration for women and men for work of equal value. Recommendations: Increase the involvement of men as partners: Successful gender mainstreaming calls for a deeper involvement of men at all levels. It is also requires a greater sensitization of men to the larger issues at stake. Activist women point to the need for men for men to become involved in Men in Development and Mens Empowerment program. Work on Government policy change: According to NGO Activists: Government is supportive are words, they make very good pronouncementsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ yes, lip service, very good. Action is where we think there is a problem. We think that there is no political will; real political will is to be able to implement. Sensitize women in power: Efforts must be also be made to deepen the sensitization of those few women in power and ensure their gender consciousness. Networking: Network is critical in moving women from immediate community activities into broader regional and national areas of related concern. Networking also presents opportunities to bridge the gap between urban and rural women as well as divides of class, religion and age in order to build strong cohesive force. Hazards of Volcanoes: Minimising the Risks Hazards of Volcanoes: Minimising the Risks A natural hazard is defined as a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage (UNISDR, 2009). It is clear that volcanoes pose a huge threat to human life and can also have major economic impacts. This short essay aims to present the hazards that arise due to volcanoes and look at what measures are currently (or should be) being taken in order to minimise the risks taken by living in close proximity to one. Primary Volcanic Hazards main and most obvious hazard that occurs due to a volcano (depending on the type) is the eruption. For volcanoes such as Kilauea in Hawaii the effusive eruption is less dangerous due to the lower pressure and lava tends to be erupted rather than other materials. The main hazard from these types of eruptions is the lava itself, which can reach widespread areas in some cases and destroys most things in its path. Volcanoes similar to Mount St. Helens in Washington, USA have extremely dangerous explosive eruptions (also known as Vesuvian eruptions) which involve many different hazards in themselves. Massive quantities of ash-laden gas are violently discharged to form a cauliflower-shaped cloud high above the volcano (Tilling, 1985). A report by (Myers Brantley, 1995) describes the effects of the blast from an eruption such as this: An explosive eruption blastsmolten and solid rock fragments (tephra)into the air with tremendous for ce. The largest fragments (bombs) fall back to the ground near the vent, usually within 2 miles. The smallest rock fragments (ash) continue rising into the air, forming a huge, billowingeruption column. Eruption columns can be enormous in size and grow rapidly, reaching more than 12 miles above a volcano in less than 30 minutes. Once in the air, the volcanic ash and gas form an eruption cloud. Large eruption clouds can travel hundreds of miles downwind from a volcano, resulting inash fallover enormous areas Another hazard is known as a pyroclastic flow and is when High-speed avalanches of hot ash, rock fragments, and gas move down the sides of a volcano during explosive eruptions or when the steep edge of a dome breaks apart and collapses. Thesepyroclastic flows, which can reach 1500 degrees F and move at 100-150 miles per hour, are capable of knocking down and burning everything in their paths. A similar hazard is known as a pyroclastic surge which is more energetic and has a dilute mixture of searing gas and rock fragments. They can move over ridges easily whereas flows tend to follow valleys (Myers Brantley, 1995). Secondary Volcanic Hazards Hazards that are not a direct result of the initial blast can be classed as secondary. Mud and debris flows are known as lahars and are initiated by large landslides of water-saturated debris, heavy rainfall eroding volcanic deposits, sudden melting of snow or ice near a vent or the breakout of water from glaciers, crater lakes or from lakes dammed by eruptions (Tilling, Topinka, Swanson, 1990). These are also very destructive and range greatly in size from several centimetres in size to kilometres and in speed from less than a metre per second to tens of metres per second. Most of the time an earthquake proceeds a volcanic eruption due to the imminent release of the pressures that have built up inside. An earthquake can be extremely dangerous in itself, so when coupled with an eruption it can be devastating. The main hazard is shaking and ground rupture which can lead to severe damage of buildings and in turn cause loss of life. They are largely dependent on the local geological and geomorphological conditions which can either amplify or reduce wave propagation (Perkins Boatwright, 1995). For example, a city built on a river bed is far more vulnerable due to the phenomenon of liquefaction which amplifies the size of the waves due to soil temporarily losing its strength and transforming into a liquid. Damage to electrical power lines or gas mains can also cause fires to break out and in some cases they may be extremely difficult to put out due to water mains bursting which would incur a loss of pressure. Reducing the risks from these hazards One of the most important processes involved in reducing the risks imposed by a volcano is monitoring. According to (Brantley Topinka, 1984) Volcano monitoring involves a variety of measurements and observations designed to detect changes at the surface of a volcano that reflect increasing pressure and stresses caused by the movement of magma, or molten rock, within or beneath it. There are many measurements that are taken in order to build up a large picture of the volcano and ultimately predict to the nearest accuracy possible when an eruption is going to take place. The movement of the ground is closely recorded because increased movement can indicate an upcoming eruption due to the movement of magma underground. Standard levelling surveys are used to obtain changes in the elevation, the tilt is measured and electronic distance measurement is also used. When no earthquakes or measurable ground movement occurs there are geophysical properties which can be measured including electr ical conductivity, magnetic field strength and the force of gravity. Once again, changes in any of these values can indicate the movement of magma. Changes in the composition or emission rate of sulphur dioxide and other gases from a volcano can also indicate a variation in magma supply rate or a change in magma type. Modified from (Wright Pierson, 1992) In addition to monitoring, detailed hazard maps are drawn which show the areas that are likely to be effected during an eruption event. Figure 3 is a simplified version for the Mount St. Helens volcano. These maps are extremely useful because they allow resources to be allocated to the parts that need it the most. For example any settlements in immediate danger from the volcano must be evacuated first, and so on. The final piece in the hazard reduction puzzle is communication. No matter how precise the information regarding an eruption is, it is useless unless this information is successfully conveyed to the people at risk and they are in a position where they understand and can take action. The following is what the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program does in order to try and achieve this: participatesin volcano-emergency planning workshops and emergency-response exercises convenesinternational, regional, and local workshops focused on volcano-hazard issues prepareseducational materials with partners, including exhibits, fact sheets, booklets, video programs, and maps collaborateswith emergency-management specialists to develop effective warning schemes meetswith community leaders and residents wanting information about potentially dangerous volcanoes in their area workswith the news media and media producers leadseducational field trips to active and potentially dangerous volcanoes for the public, officials, local residents, educators, and students helpseducators and students with classroom presentations, teacher workshops, field trips, and activities (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009). It is clear that volcanoes pose a huge threat to peoples safety. However, when a high amount of monitoring, planning and communication takes place it is usually possible to predict eruptions to a level accurate enough to save lives. The main limiting factor is the money available to spend (or the money willing to be spent) on all of these things by a countrys government. This means that for example, people in the USA and Canada can feel relatively safe about the threat to them from most of their volcanoes whereas people living in some countries of Africa cannot.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

INTRODUCTION :: Business Management Studies

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The importance of Magazines: Magazines are a major source of communication and entertainment in Australia today. Any newsagent will have racks showing hundreds of different titles. Magazines cater for special interests and give more recent information than books. They usually have interesting pictures and graphics making them easier to read. Because they are popular, they make good profits for publishers, through sales, advertising and market links. 1.2 Aim of this report The aim of this report is to show how magazines are constructed to sell to their target audience, particularly the ways in which a magazine might interest a particular reader. 2. WHICH MAGAZINES APPEAL TO TEENAGERS? 6 Magazines read by teenagers: Magazine Title Gender Target Price Frequency of Publication New Idea GRAPH 3. HOW TO MAGAZINES APPEAL TO TARGET AUDIENCES: 3.1 Definition of Target Audience: Target Audience: The target audience is the group of people the communicator wants to reach with a message. For example, this is the specific group of people which the publishers hope will buy and read the magazine. It is described by the way it fits into these categories: *Gender *Occupation *Age *Education Level *Interests *Income Magazines use these features to target or aim directly at their group: *Title *Language Used *Cover *Types of Articles *Layout and Appearance *Advertising Text Box: My report will be focusing on the teenage/female target audience of girls age thirteen to seventeen. Suppose we look at the magazine Cosmopolitan. It targets an audience of young women and mature teenage girls, who are sexy and intimate, with a real passion for life. The magazine targets this audience by helping contemporary women to achieve their goals, and live fuller, more glamorous lives. Monthly features include beauty tips, solutions on how to deal with boyfriends or spouses, career problems, and ideas on how to alleviate stress, these all appeal to the target audience. Apart from target audiences, there is also a thing called a fringe audience. This can be defined as an audience that is occasionally attracted to something. Example a cooking magazine may attract buyers of all different ages, but because of the interest that they all enjoy cooking. However, if someone was having a party, they might buy this magazine once, just for a recipe, not because they are a cook. Hence, this is a fringe audience. 3.2 Front Cover Appeal: Covers are designed to attract buyers. Text Box: About Cosmogirl!: CosmoGirl is a magazine for real girls with real issues — guys, beauty, fashion, money, parents, school,

Sunday, November 10, 2019

A class conscious society Essay

Her lack of authority of her son makes us feel considerate for Sophy. We know that women had little or no influence over their sons, so she cannot retaliate towards her son. In a modern society, her son’s behaviour towards her would not be tolerated, this once again emphasizes that the Victorian era was much more male dominant. Sophy can be argued a victim because she cannot have a relationship with her son, they are in two worlds. Hardy uses the word ‘deficiency’ to describe Sophy’s grammar. The language employed by Hardy suggests that she lacks a certain qualities, qualities to fit into the upper class society. Already, we are aware that she cannot fit into an upper class society because of her incorrect grammar, but more sadly, she cannot have a relationship with her son. It is as if that Sophy can be taken out of the lower class society, but the lower class statue never leaves her. Her son vetos the idea of Sophy becoming married to Sam, because of this, Sophy declines to Sam’s proposal and obeys her son. Sophy is now part of an upper class society, if she married a lower class citizen, this would be frowned upon. However, Sophy listens to her son and not her heart, if she was to marry Sam, her son’s reputation would go down, and her son wouldn’t be respected in the upper class community. Hardy makes it clear that Sophy does love Randolph, but he has no love for her. Her son vetoing her marrying Sam highlights his lack of respect for his mother, showing he doesn’t give a damn for her and only worried of his eminence. Once again, we observe Sophy as a victim, because she will never be happy. Through her relationship with Sam, we see that Sophy is comfortable with being a lower class citizen. During her relationship with Sam, she pulled the strings in the relationship; she was the one to be pleased. In reversal, in the upper class society, she was the one who had to please, but because of her grammar, she was looked down upon. Hardy suggests what marriage to Sam would’ve been like for Sophy. Throughout the story, Sophy speaks a sentence at a time when she is talking to her son and her husband, Mr Twycott. When she is with Sam, we speaks freely, she had to reason to hide her true self, she is only truly herself and at ease when she is with same. She doesn’t have to try with Sam, however, with Mr Twycott, she has to try hard and speak properly and act like a ‘lady’. Her excitement when she is with Sam portrays her only care in life, this emphasizes that she may regret her decision of marrying Twycott. Sophy’s incapacitation is symbolic of her loss of control of her life. After Twycott’s death, she has no control over finance, she has no control of her own son, she has no control where to go and even marrying Sam, or she feels she cannot. This is a complete comparison to life in the countryside; she had control of life, including her relationship with Sam. After marrying Twycott, her only control was to say no to Sam, this highlights she lost all control of her life as soon a she married Twycott. Hardy creates sympathy for Sophy, we see that she may never be happy again in her life because of her son vetoing the idea of her marrying Sam, he only happiness. We see that Sophy is only living to die. A modern day reader would be angry towards her son as he uttlerly lacks compassion fir hid Mother although, during the Victorian period, this was common, The fact that son’s had no influence from their Mothers means that they could almost tell them was to do, a role reversal. Despite all this, we see Sophy accepts his son’s path because she loves her and understands his motives. Sophy accepts the situation, this results her being trapped between two worlds. We see that Hardy himself, favours lower class society. Hardy uses harsher words and illustrates a dark gloomy surrounding for upper class citizens such as ‘dirty’, ‘tortured’ & ‘dusty’. He uses friendlier words and colourful surroundings to illustrate a lower class citizen such as ‘pretty’ and ‘fine peal’. We can expect Hardy to favour lower class citizens because he himself was bought up in a working class family and experienced what it was like to be part of a lower class society. We can expect him to have harsh views on the Upper class Society because of their lack of understanding and lack of consideration towards the working class people. Despite this, we do not see a happy ending in the terms of a modern day reader. We would want Sophy to marry Sam despite the vetoing of her son, instead Sophy dies unhappy. Sophy doesn’t have a happy ending, she dies alone and unhappy, for the reason she cannot marry Sam. Either Sophy is a victim to a class conscious society or she simply made too many bad decisions. When Twycott proposed to Sophy, she didn’t have to accept, however, she felt that she couldn’t. This once again shows how the Victorian Society was class conscious, the lower class citizens felt that they couldn’t defy upper class citizens; therefore it shows how much that the class has bearing on her. She also didn’t have to listen to her son and go and marry Sam, but again, the class system would show and she made the decision no to go with Sam. On the other hand, Sophy can be declared a victim, she was forced to move away from her friends and families, her own wedding was a hushed up secret, people glance and gossip about her, she has no friends and her own son has no respect for her. My view on this is that Sophy is a victim of a class conscious society because of the decisions she made. Nikesh Patel 11B Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Miscellaneous section.

Friday, November 8, 2019

5 Ways Students Can Use Thanksgiving Vacation to Start a Job Search

5 Ways Students Can Use Thanksgiving Vacation to Start a Job Search So you need to start looking for a job post-graduation, and it’s Thanksgiving break. Feeling overwhelmed? Family stressing you out with questions? Here are 5 ways you can get yourself going over your Thanksgiving vacation even while you’re dealing with extended family badgering and in a food coma. 1. Don’t hide from questions.Instead of hiding from the â€Å"So what do you want to do after you graduate?† questions, seek them out. Your family and friends know your interests and strengths best. They also might have leads you wouldn’t have access to otherwise and be more than willing to help!Figure out a way to initiate the question if no one’s asking. Ask relatives about their careers and what they did when they graduated. Ask for ideas for figuring out how to turn your favorite class or major into a job idea.2. Pad your winter break.We know you usually spend winter break catching up on sleep. But you’ll want to use your last one while y ou have it. Use this November break to set up interviews, internships, job shadows, and informal coffee chats with potential mentors or contacts. See if you can meet with a local alum to pick their brain. And start working on your applications!3. Learn something new.Your GPA isn’t the only thing you need to work on. Skills and experience are invaluable in proving yourself marketable to future employers. Take advantage of your extra free time (while you have it) to learn a new skill or pad your resume.Try coding, Adobe product tutorials, photography, Excel skills, or just take an online class in something you are interested in and that might turn out to be valuable to your career. Never stop learning and you’ll go far.4. Polish your profiles.When you get to the application stage, you’ll need to have your LinkedIn- and all other social media- profiles at peak force. Spend some hours putting together your summary, your job history, details of any study abroad, etc. Make sure to emphasize any passions or skills or strengths that won’t quite fit in your resume. This is your chance to shine.5. Have fun.Remember, you’re going to want to be you here. Your best self, sure. But your authentic self. Remember to stay true to what you like and want most out of a job. And remember to have fun.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Project Management-Chapter 8 Review Questions Essay Example

Project Management Project Management-Chapter 8 Review Questions Paper Project Management-Chapter 8 Review Questions Paper How does resource scheduling tie to project priority? -resource scheduling is directly tied to the project priority, because of the amount of available resources. The resources available will automatically go towards the project with the highest priority assigned by the organization’s objectives. 2. How does resource scheduling reduce flexibility in managing projects? -Resource scheduling will reduce the flexibility because the scheduling system will reduce slack in increasing the number of critical and near-critical activities. . Present six reasons scheduling resources is an important task. oIt allows the project manager check to see if the resource is adequate and to assess the availability of resource. oIt allows the PM to consider possible alternatives for limited resources oIt allows multiple projects to be worked on at the same time, even if they are utilizing some or all of the same resources needed. oIt allows PM’s to see how much flexibility they have with man aging certain resources. Will help see if the project is assigned a realistic time line oIt will allow the PM to see which resources have priority 4. How can outsourcing project work alleviate the three most common problems associated with multiproject resource scheduling? -Outsourcing is a great way to improve the utilization of limited resources and make sure the project is running smoothly and efficiently and reduce bottlenecks. 5. Explain the risks associated with leveling resources, compressing or crashing projects, and imposed durations or â€Å"catch-up† as the project is being implemented. The risks associated with leveling resources, compressing or crashing projects, and imposed durations are if flexibility is decreased and the risk of project delay is increased. 6. Why is it critical to develop a time- phased baseline? -It is important to develop a time-phased budget because they are critical to having a reliable project schedule. Other systems won’t allow the PM to measure the amount of work completed or manage resources as well.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Identity-Based Brand Equity Model A Conceptual Framework Essay

Identity-Based Brand Equity Model A Conceptual Framework - Essay Example The following paper aims to close this essential marketing research gap and presents a new integrated brand equity model based on the identity-based brand management approach. It explores the sources of brand equity from internal and external perspectives on behavioral and financial levels in order to achieve a higher level of brand equity measurement and management quality. Since the late 80's - with the rise of the value-based management philosophy - brand equity has developed as one of the key marketing concepts throughout management theory and practice (Srinivasan et al., 2005). The challenge of delivering comprehensible evidence of brand-based equity creation encouraged researchers to develop a wide range of different brand equity models. Today it can be assumed that more than 300 different models have been developed and implemented worldwide. (Amirkhizi, 2005) Majority of these models focuses on the consumer. (Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000) Supporters argue that the source of brand equity is based on the consumer's brand knowledge predominantly following an outside-in approach. (Keller, 2003) However, an integrated brand equity approach also reflecting on inside-out approach has yet not received any attention. Nevertheless, it would be highly relevant to also consider brand equity being already created inside the company, for instance through emp loyees. Not only do employees represent an important stakeholder group, but they also operate as the original source of brand equity. (Joachimsthaler, 2002; Jones, 2005) Such a brand equity model with an integrated brand equity definition implicates the following advantages: First, most established models are based on past information and they accordingly derived prognosis. Only the integration of an internal perspective enables an accurate assessment of the entire brand equity, since the employee's attachment to the company is captured. This useful information however is only accessible within the company. Employees are therefore capable of anticipating positive or negative tendencies of internal and external development at an earlier stage, which increases both timeliness and validity of brand equity measurement. Secondly, in majority of developed models, brand image represents the basis of evaluation. Unfortunately it cannot be directly controlled from the company's perspective. In this context, the expression of "brand image as a construct of acceptance" was defined. (Burmann and Meffert, 2005) Brand image results from decoding the brand-driven a nd interpreted signals. In contrast, brand identity represents a "concept of sender". (Kapferer, 1992b) It can be directly managed by the company. Thirdly, the consideration of brand potential and future brand options has received little attention in

Friday, November 1, 2019

Corporate Communications Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Corporate Communications - Case Study Example The UK-based international grocery chain Tesco is a world leading retail chain and its general merchandising retail chain activities stretch far beyond the European Union. By sales and profits, it is not only the largest British retail chain but also the best-known grocery store in the neighborhood. Right now according to statistics its global sales along with domestic market sales, exceed  £3 billion. Going by revenue figures it is the third biggest global retail chain based on revenue, behind Wal-Mart in the first place and Carrefour of France in the second place. However, Tesco is ahead of Carrefour in profits. Though the organization started off as a seller of food and drink, now sells almost every imaginable item required by the household, including clothes, banking and financial services, telecommunication, healthcare, insurance, electronics and electrical and much more. Corporate Communication can be defined as â€Å"The activities undertaken by an organization to communicate both internally with employees and externally with existing and prospective customers and the wider public. Corporate communication is sometimes used to refer principally to external communication and sometimes to internal communication, but strictly speaking covers both, the term implies an emphasis on promoting a sense of corporate identity and presenting a consistent and coherent corporate image† ( Thus Tesco has been using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in its retail operations. The use of ICT at Tesco is effectively practiced in its public and customer relations strategy such as with individuals and organizations, including its employees, customers, competitors and suppliers. An effective communication strategy is an essential element at

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Housing and the Inclusive Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Housing and the Inclusive Society - Essay Example In addition, private rented sector has actively participated in creating opportunities for provision of adequate homes that are accessible and convenient for in terms of prices and affordability to socially excluded groups. According to the EU, social inclusion involves a process of including people in societal activities who risk exclusion through poverty, unemployment, or homelessness; this includes exclusion from participation in decision-making processes (Spandler, 2007; European Commission, 2010). In this paper, there will be a discussion on the contribution of the private rented sector in promoting social inclusion or social exclusion, followed by an evaluation of the lesson learnt by social housing about social inclusion. Effect of Private Rented Sector on Social exclusion Private rented sector is usually a commercially operated environment such that those providing social housing must look forward to making profits. In this case, the State does not have a direct role in dicta ting housing provision, but can only provide guidelines on housing standards that landlords should meet. Therefore, it is a common phenomenon to see housing providers excluding some people based on various reasons (Hayes, Gray and Edwards, 2008; Le Grand, 2003). First, in relation to rental fees (price), allocation of housing may exclude some people based on their incomes. For instance, rental charges may be prohibitive for low-income earners, as well as those people who do not get housing benefits from their employment (Hulse and Burke, 2000). Another factor of housing allocation that promotes social exclusion is facilities allocation in housing such that the landlords usually fix heating and fuel systems within houses, which make accommodation expensive. In this case, tenants may be rebuffed from accessing housing due to extra cost of heating and fuel, or they may have to dedicate much of their resources to such costs in expense of other basic needs (Hulse and Burke, 2000). Thirdl y, social housing may discriminate disabled population from accessing housing due to the architectural design of houses. It is evident that majority of houses are constructed without consideration the accessibility of wheelchair users to the buildings; the same can be said for blind people. Fourthly, there are instances when landlord put conditions on who should be rented accommodation. For instance, landlords, driven by desire to make money and avoid the stress of demanding delayed or unpaid rent, may decide that only people from a certain level of income, certain employment sectors, race, religion or sexual orientation should be provided with housing, thus discriminating against those who do not qualify (Kleinman, 1998), despite this being unlawful. Fifthly, it is possible that some people will not have sufficient information on where to secure housing of their class and in such cases, they may be excluded from housing. For instance, potential tenants may find it difficult locatin g affordable housing especially in new and unfamiliar locations, thus finding themselves occupying houses that are beyond their reach (Hulse and Burke, 2000). Finally, private rented houses may not be equitably allocated in terms of location, with such houses being concentrated or exclusively located in certain areas. In this case, although it may be motivated by issues such as security, people who have to make

Monday, October 28, 2019

The origin of the third world plight Essay Example for Free

The origin of the third world plight Essay Thesis The Third world countries have continued to witness some of the most challenging times in their quest for real development that would catapult their economies to march those ones of the first worlds. However these countries have been bedeviled by major obstacles of bad governance, corruption, and exploitation by the first world countries. Of great concern has been the contribution of major world bodies that have continued to impoverish these economies in the name of supporting them. The World Bank stands out as one of the culprits. Introduction Many times is when some people do not understand what is meant by the term ‘third world plight’. This in terms means, they are those countries that still are developing. The third world countries are greatly in substantial indebt ness according to statistics. More than 50% of the people living in third world countries are living below the poverty line: this is below a dollar a day. It is reckoning, how this is happening, but the World Bank has attributed all this. In 1986 –1987, the World Bank’s president Barber Conable said that the World Bank had been a great success, yet it only oppresses the governments in the third world countries. In 1962, Robert McNamara who was the bank’s president led it to achieve higher loans levels and by the time he was resigning in 1981, the levels had increased from $883 million to over $12 billion. (James Bovard) McNamara and the World Bank supported Nyerere’s dictatorial regime and the bank gave more aid to Tanzania hence the cause of the current misery of the Tanzanian people. This kind of act by the World Bank was wanting, as it only devastated the third world countries. In late 1970’s, the World Bank also financed the Vietnamese’s government thus encouraging their brutal policies that brought about a lot of deaths of the boat people in the south sea. The bank was to finance an irrigation project that was risky, as it would be subjected to rebellion among the farmers. Farmers who resisted the project ended up being drowned in the sea. (James Bovard) The World Bank lent $600million to the Indonesian government to forcibly remove people from Java Island and resettle them in the barren islands. It was due to this transmigration, that violence erupted in Indonesia, leading to the deaths of thousands of people. Despite this fact, the bank termed this as the â€Å"largest voluntary migration.† This was clarion of the banks hypocrisy as it violated human’s rights. The bank provided capital to the Ethiopian Marxist regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam. (James Bovard)   In 1984 – 1985, Ethiopia was struck by famine and this forced the government to forcibly deport people in northern Ethiopia to the south. It is believed that more deaths occurred as would have been caused by the famine. The government introduced the villagilization program but many people still rebelled against it and were killed. Despite of all this happenings, the bank still continued to lend money, as it was not concerned with the citizens but seemed to provide more help to the bureaucrats and politicians. (James Bovard) The World bank is highly to blame on the poverty in the third world countries as it uses to pressure to this countries to lend more money than which is borrowed. The audit of Madagascar Morondava Irrigation and Rural Development Project is a good example, where by the new government was pressured by the bank to accept the project so as to be submitted to the executive directors. It is evident that the World Bank gave wrong advice to the third world countries and it’s clearly brought in Western Africa in the project of promoting cocoa and coffee. This simply failed because the bank had encouraged the farmers to grow cash crops in unsuitable soils. (Barbara G 18) The world bank in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s aim, was to lend money in order to boost food production in Africa and other developing countries but this did not happen as almost 20% of the food production had fallen because much of the bank’s investments went to big irrigation schemes and state farms thus wastage of money. It is due to the bank’s poor investments that dragged down the entire economies of the third world countries. (Peter T. Bauer 21) In 1980, the world began Structural Adjustment Loans programs that encouraged policy reforms. Most of these loans were mainly going to the governments of the third world countries in repaying their debts to the bank or the international momentary fund. In 1984, a statement from a world bank’s official was bizarre, as he said, â€Å"if china is to maintain a reasonable growth rate and manageable debt service payments, it will need to obtain the necessary additional foreigner capital at an average interest rate below the market rate.† This implied that even investments in the third world countries would not be greater than the banks interest hence putting third world countries into deeper poverty’(Peter T. Bauer 23)    Problems faced by the third world countries Malnutrition- a good example is in Kenya whereby a bank report found severe malnutrition widespread among the beneficiaries. Barbara Gunnell concluded ‘the real loser is the Kenyan government, or future generations of Kenyans who will go on paying the World Bank interest on the loan.’ This was due to the fact that the bank had invested $20 million in Bura irrigation but when the then president Daniel Moi toured Bura he found ‘eroded irrigation canals, abandoned plots, poor crops, tumbledown and unsanitary housing, zebra grazing on irrigated land and on air of decay’(Peter T. Bauer 23) Diseases -a lot of diseases have become wide spread in these third world countries and they include; The AIDS pandemic, malaria, cholera among others. Poor infrastructure- poor insfrastructure has become a major threat to these countries as many accidents occur though roads that are constructed well but the cost of maintenance is quite high hence they become dilapidated. (Peter T. Bauer 24) Desertification- an example is in Botswana whereby two livestock projects that were to promote cattle rising resulted to overgrazing. The bank further introduced a third livestock project despite the fact that it led to overgrazing. (Peter T. Bauer 26) Displacement- the bank is spending about half a billion dollars in the largest westwards-flowing river in India to dam it. This was proved that it would end up displacing thousands of people and destroying a lot of land but the World Bank went ahead with its plan. Insecurity- the third world countries have been faced with high rate of insecurity as foreign direct investments have been directed to other regions hence of no benefits to these countries as high crime rates still continues. (Peter T. Bauer 33) Poverty – many people in the third world countries are living below the poverty line due to the indebt ness that they have to their donors, international momentary fund and the World Bank. (Peter T. Bauer 34) Conclusion It is evident that though the World Bank has helped these countries, it is majorly to blame for dragging their economies. For all countries in the world to be at par, it only would be best to cancel of, the debt of the so-called third world countries. The bank ought to encourage reductions in lending capital to enable these countries economies to grow. It could also not lend capital that will be of bad use, as this only benefits politicians of these countries and continues to deteriorate their economies. Works Cited Barbara Gunnell, The Great Bura Irrigation Scheme Disaster, African Business (April  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1986): 18. James Bovard: The World Bank vs. the World Poor: Policy Analysis: Retrieved on 13th May 2008 from Peter T. Bauer: Equality. The Third World. And Economic Delusion: Cambridge, Harvard  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   University Press, 1981 p. 21.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Feminism In The Handmaids Tale Essay -- Feminism Feminist Women Criti

Feminism In The Handmaid's Tale      Ã‚  Ã‚   Feminism as we know it began in the mid 1960's as the Women's Liberation Movement. Among its chief tenants is the idea of women's empowerment, the idea that women are capable of doing and should be allowed to do anything men can do. Feminists believe that neither sex is naturally superior. They stand behind the idea that women are inherently just as strong and intelligent as the so-called stronger sex. Many writers have taken up the cause of feminism in their work. One of the most well known writers to deal with feminist themes is Margaret Atwood. Her work is clearly influenced by the movement and many literary critics, as well as Atwood herself, have identified her as a feminist writer. However, one of Atwood's most successful books, The Handmaid's Tale, stands in stark contrast to the ideas of feminism. In fact, the female characters in the novel are portrayed in such a way that they directly conflict with the idea of women's empowerment.    On the surface, The Handmaid's Tale appears to be feminist in nature. The point-of-view character and narrator is a woman and thus we see the world through a woman's eyes. There's much more to the story than that, though. Atwood doesn't show us our world. She shows us a newly created world in which women lack the freedoms that they currently take for granted. This dystopian society is completely controlled by men. Of course, the men have help from the Aunts, a crack team of brainwashers that run the reeducation centers and teach the handmaids how to be slaves. These characters really don't speak well for womankind for two reasons. First of all, it's difficult to tell who their real life counterpart is, assuming that this... writers. It's obvious that Atwood intentionally set herself apart from these writers with The Handmaid's Tale. At times, she seems to disagree with them completely, such as when she shows pornography in a favorable manner. At other times, she portrays feminists themselves as the powerful women they would like to be seen as, but it's always with full disclosure of their human frailty. Atwood never bashes feminism. Instead, she shows both sides of it. Like everything else in the novel, feminism is shown to have good and bad elements. Even in Atwood's brave new world, there is no black and white.    Sources Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid's Tale. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1985. Moore, Pamela, Atwood, Margaret: The Handmaid's Tale. Boston, MS: Houghton Mifflin, 1986. Internet   

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Organic Nomenclature and Functional Groups Essay

Learning how to name and draw the structure of the various compounds is the first step in learning to speak the language of organic chemistry. Chapter 1 presented organic chemistry as the chemistry of the carbon atom. However, many organic compounds contain other atoms besides carbon that contribute significantly to the physical and chemical properties of the compound. Chemists call these atoms heteroatoms, and the groups they form, functional groups. This chapter provides an overview of the rules for naming organic www. ochem4free. com 5 July 2005 Organic Chemistry – Ch 2 73 Daley & Daley compounds. It also introduces the major functional groups that you will encounter as you study organic chemistry along with the rules of how to name them and draw their structures. The presence of heteroatoms radically changes the physical and chemical properties of the compounds to which they are bonded. In fact, the carbon— heteroatom bonds and the carbon—carbon multiple bonds are the main sites where chemical reactions take place. Organic compounds are arranged into classes according to the particular functional groups that they contain. Members of each class of compounds share common chemical and physical characteristics. The names of organic compounds are assigned according to the class of the compound as determined by the functional groups. This chapter also shows how to draw the structural representations of these compounds. 2. 1 Drawing Organic Structures A two-dimensional structural formula of a hydrocarbon shows all of the atoms with all of their bonds in the plane of the page. Molecules are actual, three-dimensional entities. Their structure is a major factor that determines their physical properties and the way one molecule interacts with another molecule. These bonds are combinations of single bonds with hydrogen atoms and single or multiple bonds with other carbon atoms. For molecules that contain a large number of atoms or complex structures, drawing every bond and every atom is time and space consuming. A common notation developed to abbreviate the drawing without sacrificing the clarity of the structure is the condensed structural formula shown below for heptane: CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 Heptane www. ochem4free. com 5 July 2005 Organic Chemistry – Ch 2 74 Daley & Daley Taking out the lines representing the carbon—carbon bonds condenses this formula still more: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Heptane Heptane has five repeating —CH2— groups, called methylene groups. Because many organic molecules have such repetitive groups, an even more condensed notation shows these repeating units. Using this notation, the formula for heptane is as follows: CH3(CH2)5CH3 Heptane Bond-line formulas represent the carbon atoms as the intersection of lines and as line ends. You assume all the hydrogens needed to complete carbon’s valences. The bond-line structural formula is the notation that most organic chemists prefer to use. Bond-line formulas are easy to draw and quickly convey the essential structure of a molecule. Both the ends and the angles of the structure represent the carbon atoms. C—H bonds are not shown, but you should assume that the appropriate number of hydrogen atoms is present to complete the four bonds required by carbon to have its octet of electrons. The bond-line formula for heptane looks like this: Heptane Not all hydrocarbons are straight chains; many are rings. Chemists use the same structural formulas for them. Because the illustration of the two-dimensional structural formula of methylcyclopentane is so cluttered, it does not clearly show the ring. H H H C C H C C C H H CH HH H HH Methylcyclopentane The condensed structural formula is clearer. www. ochem4free. com 5 July 2005 Organic Chemistry – Ch 2 75 Daley & Daley CH2 CH2 CH CH2 CH3 CH2 Methylcyclopentane The bond-line structural formula is even clearer. Thus, chemists use it most frequently. Methylcyclopentane Often, chemists combine the bond-line and condensed notations to clarify a structure or emphasize specific features. This formula also represents methylcyclopentane. CH3 Methylcyclopentane Exercise 2. 1 Redraw each of the following condensed structural formulas using the bond-line notation.