Saturday, August 31, 2019
Although computer teachers have some advantages, I prefer humanteachers. Human teachers make learning fun, and they can be caring and understanding. Computer teachers do have some advantages. The computer teachers can teach more than the humanteachers can in about the books. They have better memory than the human teacher has because they are computers, computer can memorize anything. Moreover, computer teachers will be fairly to all of the students. In addition, students learn from the computers, they can learn more independently because t he computer cannot care when they do not pay attention in the class. However, humanteachers sometimes have a sense of humour and are more fun than computers. The human teacher can teach the students in the best way, they know what the students want. Moreover, they can make the students know what life is; the humanteachers can talk their life experience to the students, this is very important to the future of the students. The students can learn some things that out of the books from the humanteachers. Moreover, they will care the students, they will care what do the students will do after school or do they feel happy or not. The humanteachers also can make friends with the students. Computers have not feeling and therefore they do not understand the feeling of students, but teachers care for students and encourage them. Human teachers can do many things to the students but the computer teachers cannot. For example, the ways that they teach, the computer teachers just have one way to teach, but humanteachers have many ways. The computer teachers do not have life experience, they cannot talk about life, but the humanteachers have. The computer will not care about the students and they cannot make friends with the students, but the humanteachers can. Why do the humanteachers can do more things to the students than the computer teachers can? Because they are human, they are not machines. Human know what human want, the human teacher may have the same past to the students. They will understand the students feeling, they can help the student solve their problems. Therefore, the humanteachers are better than the computer teachersÃ are.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The world today has allowed women to hold other positions apart from their traditional roles which are being temporarily pushed aside. Temporary because traditional roles and family responsibilities can never be ignored or eliminated and it is this responsibility that women need to be empowered to encourage and give them the confidence to venture out and earn income to meet the demands of everyday life. The 20th century has become familiar with gender equality and more women and girls are stepping out of their traditional roles and embracing success despite facing economic, social, cultural and educational issues. This essay will discuss the issue of empowering women as a strategy used to help women and investment in education as the driving forces of overcoming problems and help forge a better future. Firstly, in our environment today we see more women stepping out of their traditional roles to work regardless of low or high paid income. The disadvantage on the economical level they face is the power of wealth where unnecessary spending does not allow for savings for the future. Women tend to give in to husbands demands and with peer pressure want for luxury items far beyond their affordability. For instance, our environment can influence the way we spend especially wanting what others have, for example, purchasing a vehicle can exhaust funds and create debt and borrowing. Economically this slows the growth of the economy and encourages poverty within families and the community. Secondly, the social disadvantage women face as they begin to take up higher responsibilities and thus, decision making within their household and at work encourages them to stand for their rights on any issues they face. This can lead to many social problems as they are exposed to many lifestyles such as the way they dress, attitudes and behavior changes. These changes can result to problems within the household and the community which leads to violence within families and between husband and wives or women and the community. In Bagdad, Afghanistan women who sought work in town are changing the way they dress from wearing their cultural wear, burqa (clothes that cover most of their entire body) to wearing short skirts and blouses to work. This has angered some husbands and in February 21st Pritka SinghÃ¢â¬â¢s husband killed her for bringing shame into the family as a mother. (Fiji Times, March 4 2013 p.19) Lastly, in most Pacific Island countries and some places within the Asian and Middle East countries, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to stay at home and look after the families while the husbands earn income to support the family financially. But as women begin to shift roles and work to earn an income, most women begin to spend most of their time at work rather than at home. For this reason most families system begins to breakup as children are left to care for themselves and the upbringing by their caretakers are under supervised can lead children to poor health. Also, divorce and broken homes happen when mothers and fathers spend time away from each other and reconciliation is beyond repair. (Personal communication Priscilla Tongi) However, even though the disadvantages are discouraging I feel that these problems can be fixed and overcome as strategies of empowering of women begin to take place. In the past, women were not allowed to stand up among men to participate in decision making but the 20th century has allowed this and why empowering of women has made a positive impact on women so far. Firstly, the advantage of empowering women to do more and engage in formal work possibility leads to economic growth. A study shows that women in Australia who held positions as board directors significantly had higher financial returns, including 53 percent higher returns on equity, 24 percent higher returns on sales and 67 percent higher returns on invested capital (www.wikipedia.org). This shows that female workers use strategies that communicate well with their employees to motivate them to perform well within the environment they work in. Secondly, the mentalities of men as the superior of both genders begin to change as women become empowered and begin to take up responsibilities similar to men. Here women have the confidence and courage to make decisions within their household, workplaces and the society as a whole. They rise from fear of being teased, mocked, seen as worthless and not important and begin to take part in important discussions with males to help their families and communities. (www.ifad.org) This social advantage helps in confirming fundamental rights of women. Finally, Education is an important element to any development within a society and without proper education poverty emerges. Through empowering of women, this strategy has encouraged more women to attend school and given the same opportunities as the male. Universities and other formal education enhances understanding on different fields like health, economics, politics etc to help them make good decisions within their families and society.(www.ifd.org) For example in Honiara at the Anglican Satellite church at Burns Creek , Literacy classes for the rural uneducated mothers are held twice a week to help them to read and write . Hence, confidence in attending community meetings and sharing in decision makings with the community become easy. Investment in education should be a priority to assist women become good role models and with educational achievements of women are more likely to be looked upon as setting good examples. (personal communication Shirley Nokia) Based on the evidence presented in this essay, empowerment of women is a positive strategy which encourages women, whereas in the past, little was done to allow women to step out from their traditional roles and into higher positions. Although the disadvantages hinder women through economical, social and educational issues, the advantages are more promising and through investment in education especially, women and girls can have a better future and make a better world for all.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Restructuring the Siemens Company - Case Study Example There are a number of definitions of corporate restructuring ranging. Froud (2000) defines restructuring as the collective activities that involve the introduction of financial instruments, dissolution, increasing equity ownership and reduction of corporate assets. Usui (1996) defines restructuring as activities that a corporate engages in when under pressure, Bowman (1999) on the hand states that restructuring involves the reorganisation of division, streamlining of operations and spun offs with the aim of improving performance and restructuring is the utilisation of assets in a more productive way in order to improve share holder returns. Bowman (1999) states that there are three modes of restructuring which include portfolio restructuring, financial restructuring and organisational restructuring. Portfolio restructuring include those actions aimed at changing the asset mix owned by a firm and they include spin offs and sale of assets. Financial restructuring on the other hand are those actions aimed at changing the capital structure of a company and they include leveraged buyout and debt equity swap. Finally organisational restructuring involve changes in the organisation structure of the firm and they include redesigning and employee downsizing. Restructuring has both negative and positive impacts. Positive impacts include enhanced productivity, reduced production costs and increased shareholders' wealth and Negative impacts include lay offs. Bowman (1999) states that performance is determined by market performance and accounting performance. Market performance relates to change in the share prices of a company after restructuring while accounting performance relates to changes in profit, return on investment and equity. Restructuring in the Siemens Company: Restructuring of the company started in 1966 whereby the company the company organised its production into division and there was decentralisation of control, this was aimed at improving the response to consumer requirements, the division included data system, power engineering, electrical installation, medical engineering, components and electrical installations which all worked independently, Siemens (2009) states that sales during these years ranged at DM 10 billion a year and employment was approximately 270,000 employees. Further restructuring efforts were evident in the year 1969 when the company made it possible for employees to purchase shares at discounted prices. In 1990 further changes were implemented, the seven units were further divided into 15 units, (Siemens (2009)) Before 1990 over 60% of Siemens consumers were public institutions, this protected the company from fluctuating prices in the market and product prices remained relatively constant, privatisation of public institutions began in the 1990's and this led to a decline in domestic sales, because the domestic market was already saturated the company opted to expand its market size by investing abroad, in 1985 domestic sales amounted to 53% and only 10% in the US and by the year 2001 domestic sales am
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Equity of Water Distribution - Assignment Example In 1998, HoustonÃ¢â¬â¢s water customers consume 1.35 million cubic meters of water per day. The former maximum daily pumpage, recorded in July of 1986, was 1.79 million cubic meters per day. More recently, however, Houston had pumped an all-time record high of 1.96 million cubic meters per day, during the heat wave in 1998. Houston uses water for retail consumption, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Presently, long dry spells have necessitated conservation efforts to extend available water supply. For the Sugar Land area, to reduce peak demand and total water consumption, Sugar Land residents are asked to water lawns according to the following schedule: Surat is located at the mouth of the river in floodplains and during the monsoon season, it is the site of the concentration of water flow. Water is used for agriculture, drinking, water supply industries and energy generation. Its water supply is provided by the Ukai dam, which, save for the annual lean season, is not short of supply due to the annual monsoon that brings heavy rainfall and flooding (Bhat, 2011). Recently the Maranoa Regional Council introduced a new water pricing system for residential and business customers. The new consumption based system calls for the payment of a fixed service fee for ongoing connection, to which is added a charge for every kilolitre of water used. However, the Council has excluded Surat from the new pricing system; instead, the residents and business will be allocated an annual volume for use, with the excess charge to apply only for the use of additional kilolitres over the allocation. The system is designed to cover the higher fixed costs of operating SuratÃ¢â¬â¢s dual reticulation system and river water treatment process. The higher cost of treatment is due to the fact that SuratÃ¢â¬â¢s water is drawn from the Balonne river instead of a bore, requiring a more expensive method of treatment.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
French policing- Directorate-General of Customs and Indirect Taxes - Essay Example The minister of Budget, Public Accounts and Civil Service controls the Directorate-General. The Directorate-General of Customs and Indirect Taxes is responsible for ensuring that fraud is detected and tackled, indirect taxes are levied accordingly, smuggling is prevented at borders, counterfeit products are detected and dealt with, drug trafficking is prevented, money laundering is stopped, and borders are thoroughly surveyed (IMF, 1996). The Directorate-General of Customs and Indirect Taxes in France serves the purpose of guarding the borders, guarding the coasts, handling custom services and conducting rescue operations in the sea. The history of French custom services can be traced back to the revolutionary period. France formed a military custom service responsible for fighting in major wars which included the First World War and the Franco-Prussian War. This custom service was referred to as the General Firm. The servicemen who served in this custom service were armed and they acted as frontier guards, as well as performing other functions related to para-military activities such as patrolling to prevent smuggling (IMF, 1996). During that time, custom service workers were divided into two groups, those working in brigades and those working in offices. Those working in brigades were well organized, armed, disciplined and operated along military lines. Those working in offices were given the same duties and respon sibilities as custom inspectors in other countries. Individual custom officers serving the customs department later on wore blue uniforms with red stripes on the trousers. Most of them were known to be former soldiers. The customs service of the military took part in the initial stages of the Second World War. However, after French was defeated, the service was disbanded and never reconstituted again. The custom service in France has been tasked with the responsibility of custom and immigration checks at certain
Monday, August 26, 2019
Small Island Andrea Levy - Essay Example It was not only dehumanising but also very demeaning, inspiring a number of strong written versions of expression of anguish. This novel is an attempt to do the same. However, it is not the author who takes up the task of story narration, and in turn imposes her thoughts. Instead, the author gives greater levels fo autonomy to her four principle characters to take turns and narrate the story! Thus, it is akin to a personal account of the experience of these individuals, set in racist England. This write-up is an attempt to sketch the character of Hortense, who is a migrant from the island of Jamaica. Her character is round, and undergoes a number of changes, spiritually and psychologically through the novel. This is exactly what I have attempted to chalk out, in this paper. The character of Hortense is representative of the average immigrant from the island of Jamaica, who comes to England with dreams to pursue a career. Through her character, the author gives the readers an insight into the mindset and expectations that these immigrants envisage; and how they face sheer disappointment and trauma on reaching the place and living in the midst of racially abusive individuals. UPBRINGING Hortense's character is carved on the dynamic side. Hortense was the daughter of a learned and respected person, Lovell Roberts. He is referred to, as "a man of class". Hortense's childhood was not that of a typical 'Black' Jamaican. She was above them-she had skin "the colour of warm honey" and was certainly not 'Black'. She received class education to become a teacher and possessed polished manners and behaviour. Her hands were adorned with white gloves and she certainly was, a picture of class. Hortense was disappointed with her career as a teacher in Jamaica, since she had to teach the 'Blacks' and not polished youngsters of class. INITIAL RACIST VIEWS This initial description is a give away into the racist Jamaican society. There existed deep-rooted racism, based on the colour of skin. For instance, Hortense was considered a cut above the rest, since she did not have black' skin like the others and possessed a honey-coloured complexion. This establishes the fact that she belonged to the so-called higher strata of the society, back home in Jamaica. She was proud of her skin-tone that was her passport to a higher class in society. She certainly did possess racist views and loathed having to teach the Black children, who were 'wretched', as she felt. Thus, the initial phase of the novel is quite a revelation of Hortense's early life, her racist views and ambitions of making it big in her career. SHIFT IN PERCEPTIONS WITH SHIFT IN PLACE She married Gilbert, who is scheduled to move to England, for the sole reason that she too could get to go to England. She marries him
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Power and Humanizing Models of Culture - Essay Example This can only be done if they look at their cultural memory which Nietzsche continued by explaining that the concept of cultural memory could be defined through a delimitation that distinguishes it from communicative or everyday memory which is said to not contain cultural characteristics. The concept of communicative as Halbawach said includes all varieties of memories that are gathered from the daily communications. The varieties gathered are part of oral history. The communicative memory however has no fixity to bind it to the past as time passes and for it to attain this it requires it to include culture. Human beings require moving from the everyday communication and getting into the objective culture which has the structure of memory. Cultural memory that Nietzsche says people should adopt is fixed and therefore even as time passes one is bind to the past. The memory can be kept by having cultural formations in forms of text or monuments. Cultural memory has been seen to preser ve knowledge that has enabled people to be aware of their unity. The other advantage of cultural memory is that though it is hard to remember what happened in the past cultural memory can be reconstructed by relating its knowledge to an actual situation. It is also said to exist in two modes and the first is the mode where the texts and monuments act as total horizon, it is called the mode of potentiality (Nietzsche & Large 2007 p.49). The second mode in which the cultural memory exists in is the actuality mode. Cultural memory formation does not depend on one medium; it has many options like writing, images and also rituals. There is also the existence of specialists when it comes to cultural memory unlike the collective memory. Cultural memory has also been said to be reflexive in certain ways, one is that it is said to practice reflexive because it explains practices using proverbs and also rituals. It is also said to be self-reflexive because when explaining and interpreting cer tain practices it draws from itself. The other benefit of cultural memory is that it uses images and rituals that are specific to each society. Every society is required to remember its past. This enables a society to be open to it and also to others understanding their culture. Cultural memory presents the image of the society and in this way a society is united (Nietzsche, Kaufmann & Hollingdale 1968, p.71-3). This said it shows that Nietzsche was in favor of maintaining culture and looking at the past. This is why he was known to be the strongest critic of modernity. He in fact called termed it to be barbaric. Nietzsche believed that human beings in the modern era had weakened personality. He therefore argued that there was need to create great personalities as this was the only way to bring back genuine culture. The philosopher also dealt with cultural complex and said that cultures were patterned wholes. The reason why he liked culture was because he believed that culture was w hat domesticated human beings. He talked of culture enabling humans to have discipline and also have social control. It is culture that makes individuals to be healthy and strong making them to have good values unlike the modern culture which he believed had slave values. The Socratic culture that led to emergence of modern world was said by Nietzsche to be oppressing the body making individuals to have weak personalities (Miller 1970, p.98). Nietzsche has written numerous essays and books on philosophical matters, touching issues of life
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Risk management - Essay Example Student lifestyle is a contributing factor in relation to hazards like smoke inhalation, burning. The fire fighting and rescue team also needs to have a contact with paramedical team to tackle this situation which requires quick action and thinking on their feet. The Fire & Rescue Service Act, 2004 has been developed keeping in mind the potential hazards that may occur in places like student accommodations and also other fire and hazard sensitive places. An integrated risk management plan if prepared at an early stage can help the fire and rescue team to prepare themselves better to tackle any fire related situation. Risk Management and potential hazards are common situation through out the world. Due to present day modernisation and changing lifestyle people are becoming more prone to hazards like fire, smoke inhalation, burns, and cuts in almost all the places including studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ accommodations. The safety and security of people at the distressed situation becomes an extremely difficult task for fire and rescue team. To tackle this scenario they have to be preparing themselves to tackle any kind of situation and also to save precious lives as much as they can. Potential hazards which can cause harm to people and to their belongings can be both caused by nature like earthquakes, floods, storms, forest fires, flash floods and also from non-natural sources like fire, electric related hazards like shock, falling of tiles from the roof, cuts, and accidents. The risks involved in all this hazards are different in nature so to tackle them there has to be contingency plan for each situation. Th e fire and service team maintains a philosophy in managing risks like they give importance to saving lives the most. Then they look to save property which can be saved after any hazard like scenario, they generally donÃ¢â¬â¢t risk their lives while saving the properties
Friday, August 23, 2019
Advantages of owning a franchise - Term Paper Example Over the recent years, franchising has become a beneficial venture and has attracted many entrepreneurs. Franchise refers to the license describing the relationship between two individuals; the franchisor and franchisee (Inma, 2005). In this case, the license includes support, control, trademarks and fees. Franchising allows the goodwill, reputation, expertise, and technical knowledge of the franchise to be used together with the investment of the franchisee so as to produce and sell goods and services. In other words, a franchise is a form of business that involves one organization using another organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s successful business model. Owing to its effectiveness in combining the skills, investments, expertise, and knowledge of the franchisor and the franchisee, franchising has become more and more popular among business people over the last few years. There are several advantages of owning a franchise which are having: continual support, financial assistance, and proven prof itability. Continual Support One main advantage of franchising is that the franchisee is subject to continued support from the franchisor. Owning a franchise helps one to get various forms of support such as pre-opening training in which one is trained about the technologies, operations, marketing and financial aspects of a business. During pre-opening training, the franchisee is trained on how a particular business operates and how to handle matters that the business may face (Kong 2011). In other words the franchisee enjoys ongoing support as the situation dictates, the franchisor acting as a mentor to the franchisee. In this respect, the franchisee and their employees may receive continuous training as and when the need arises. Given that the franchisor benefits from the success of the franchisee, they are bound to go an extra step to ensure that the franchisee succeeds in business. This being the case, the franchisor will always be ready to offer continuous technical support to the franchisee which is good for the wellbeing of the business and both of the parties. The franchisee can also be offered financial support for advertising and promotion by the franchisor. It is important for an entrepreneur to understand the different aspects of the business they intend to engage in. In many cases, businesses wind up simply because the entrepreneur lacks the requisite skills and knowledge, technologies, finances, or support. While these are some of the challenges that people who engage in other forms of businesses face, a person who starts a franchise has higher chance of succeeding. With this kind of support, the franchisee is able to start and grow his/her venture very fast without many problems associated with lack of knowledge and finances. Financial Assistance The second advantage of franchising is that unlike it happens with other forms of businesses, a franchisee can easily receive financial support to start and run a franchise. It is well known that many q ualified franchisees do not have enough capital to run an outlet. The franchisor may finance the franchisee either directly or through third parties (Beshel 2001). With respect to third party financing, the franchisee is financed by a third party but the franchisor acts as guarantor. If the cost of general advertizing is high, the franchisor may also offer financial assistance to the franchisee so as to help in increasing sales. This is aimed at generating more income to recover the advertizing costs. In other cases, the franchisor may opt to temporarily exempt the franchisee from paying the franchising fees or remitting a share of the profit so that the franchise may achieve stability. With the franchisor offering financial support, the franchisee is able to set up an outlet even if he has limited capital. Proven Profitability Franchises are generally associated with high success levels and, therefore, high profitability. Operating a sole proprietorship,
Pharmacy application - Letter of Recommendation - Essay Example Toan-Thang works well independently and always takes the initiative to research information on his patients disease processes. In the clinic, his presentations are organized, clear and concise. He shows great confidence and poise. His technical skills are complete and accurate, including all the necessary information for the task. Toan-Thang also exhibits an outstanding patient care manner. He is courteous and empathetic as he gives patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ need priority. He quickly gains the trust of his patients and gives them the best care possible. In summary, Toan-Thangs work ethics are outstanding and he is a true leader amongst his peers. He has an extensive and well applied knowledge of disease pathphysiology and therapy management. He is well disciplined, punctual, efficient, professional and courteous. His clinical skills and analytical skills are outstanding, plus he shows great clinical judgment on every level of care. With these attribute characteristics, I strongly believe he would be a great pharmacist. I hope your program would give him a chance to reach his goal. I highly recommend Toan-Thang Vo without reservation to your pharmacy
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Death of a Salesman Essay The Death of a Salesman is one of Arthur Millers earlier plays and was written in 1949. The play is based in Yonkers, New York in 1940. Millers Father was in a substantial financial crisis as there was a recession which led the family business to be put in jeopardy. Due to the recession and the Miller financial crisis, Arthur had to pay for his own tuition to study journalism and play writing in the University of Michigan. All of Arthurs plays were based on his life and all of the experiences he had encountered. Miller wrote his plays this way as he would have a first hand account of the events. The Death of a Salesman is a disguise of Arthur Millers past time of his family businesss bankruptcy and financial crisis. In The Death of a Salesman, Willy Loman is in a crisis. Hes about to lose his job, he cant pay his bills, and his sons Biff and Happy dont respect him and cant seem to live up to their potential. He wonders what went wrong and how he can make things up to his family. Willy Loman is a small, old man who believes he is of no significance. He just hopes for his children to do the best and be happy with what they achieve in life. Willy elaborates with images from the past and convinces himself that all is ok. It isnt. His role idolises a great salesman of his time, now to be just of an old age that sells his personality and doesnt publicly display his withering mind and aggression. Linda Loman is Willys loyal wife and a loving heart to his hopes and ideas. She suffers as his mind deteriorates because she knows his mind is beyond help. She has always had faith in Willy and in all his respects. All she wants is to be happy with what she has but the family feuds are preventing her from doing so. Biff Loman is a 34 year old son of Willy who has been searching for himself while working on farms in the west to the dismay of his father. Happy Loman is the younger brother of Biff who tries in all he can to please his father and attempts to continue his fathers dream after the climax in the book. In the duration of this investigation, I am trying to find out To what extent does Miller uses relationships in Death of a Salesman to expose Willys weakening grasp on reality in act one? Linda and Willy have a very insecure relationship. They never discuss their thoughts and opinions in a one to one conversation and bottle up all of their emotions. Linda trys to help Willy as she knows he is under a lot of emotional troubles. The relationship is very one sided because Linda never finds the courage to stand up to him and lets him boss her around, loosing all senses of free will. Linda is a reserved individual and doesnt like to share her thoughts and opinions because she is intimidated by Willy as he will find bad ways of dealing with the anger and stress this may cause upon his relationship with Linda. Willy and Lindas relationship shows Willys weakening grasp on reality as he isnt able to admit defeat on anything and is unable to tell Linda of his incapabilities and weaknesses. As he is losing the plot and his mental capability, he thinks it is time to go. He decides for the extreme option of suicide, he isnt aware that he is leaving obvious clues and evidence of this mind turning attitude. Linda says during a conversation with her husband Willy dear youre the handsomest man in the world. This quote tells me that Linda is an admirer of Willy and doesnt want to put him down. She is trying many psychological techniques to stop him from losing himself, one of which is reassurance which would make him feel loved and cared for, to make him feel his purpose. Lindas reassurance seems to fail to please Willy as she just finds more evidence of attempts of suicide. All of Millers language corresponds with the characters predicted attitude as this is a generalisation speech of a person of this kind of attitude, for example; Willy being a socially insecure individual, the comments of the people around him reassure his thoughts and have made him become arrogant. Miller continuously puts a negative concept on the American Dream bring references to the negative factors. Another relationship which shows Willys weakening grasp on reality is the one shared by Ben and Willy, they both participate in an awkward relationship as Willy is jealous of Ben. Ben is a very self absorbed individual but despite he is idolised over, he is successful but an idiotic character. The man knew what he wanted then he went out and got it! This phrase tells us the he is an arrogant character who has achieved his own concept of the American Dream but is the gluttonous approach. Willy believes that Ben is some kind of hero but to everybody else, he is a bit short of a hero. As Willy is jealous of Ben, he feels he needs to live up to his brothers influences and he then lies to Linda about his achievements. Eventually, Linda discovers what Willy is doing and he then contradicts himself. These factors show that he is losing his grasp on reality because he isnt able to admit defeat and failure. This relationship is unstable because they are constantly trying to out-do each other and be better that the other. However this usually ends in family feuds or leading the lower person to become depressed. This causes tension between the two as well, making several situations awkward. Ben thinks that he is better that Willy and he thinks that Willy is of a lower social class to him. Willy knows Bens opinions and thoughts of these situations se he tries to do the opposite to Bens thoughts. Willy says to Ben, Oh sure theres snakes and rabbits out here and thats why I moved out here, why, Biff can fool any of these trees in no time! Willy says this to Ben because Ben doesnt understand why Willy moved to the City. Willy furthermore tries to make out that he likes living in the city and isnt just there for a job. Willy wants to try and make Ben see the real Willy Loman and not all the pain and disappointment beyond his smug grin. This contributes to Willys loosing grip on reality, as he always feels like he has to be better and sometimes he feels as though he has failed as a businessman. The reader can see this as Willy says to Linda, The man knew what he wanted and went out and got it! Walked into a jungle and comes out, the age of twenty one, and hes rich. He is talking about Ben, and Willy is implying that all his life he has worked as a businessman and never achieved; whereas Ben had achieved greatly and at such a young age also. He feels as though he isnt good enough and that he has to lie to Linda as he doesnt want her to think that he is useless, incompetent and that Ben in much better than him. The final relationship which Miller uses to show Willys weakening grip on reality is with Willys eldest son, Biff. When Biff and Happy were boys, they respected Willy as if he was a man of high importance. Linda told the boys, Few men are idolised by their boys the way you are. This quotation shows that Willy and the boys were close at one point but now Biff and Willy are constantly arguing with each other and Willy does this because biff isnt being the best he can be and fulfilling his true potential. Biff isnt successful in Willys eyes and I know this because Willy quoted Biff is a lazy bum. This quote shows that Willy thinks that Biff is worthless but then, when Willy contradicts himself by saying, If theres one thing about Biff, he is not lazy, this show a loss of grip on reality because he is constantly changing his mind. Arthur Miller uses several forms of dramatic techniques in the duration on the play, many of which reveal Willy Lomans weakening grasp on reality in unexpected forms. In the set, the walls are all just frames; therefore you can walk through them as if they werent actually there. This effect gives the viewer the feeling that Willy has lost his mind and isnt able to see the obvious and therefore dismays peoples perspectives on him, that he is a fool, idiotic and worthless. The laugh in the background is the laugh of a woman from Willys past, a woman Willy had an affair with. The woman is laughing at the deceitful lies Willy is telling Linda about his days earnings because he is keeping money aside for her and is leaving less money to support the family. Willy is under a financial crisis as he is putting his money towards the welfare of two women. The laugh symbolises society laughing at his because he is a fool and everybody knows it. Society mock Willy because he has to borrow money from his son in able to make his wife believe that he has more earnings than he does after he splits them two ways, also that his tricks are obvious and manipulative upon Linda.. All of the dramatic devices are effective because they show societys opinion of Willy Loman, just a depressed elderly man in marriage and financial troubles. To conclude, the relationships in this family are all messed up and have come undone. The relationships are a straight jacket on the familys communication and chains are weighing Willy and Linda down, to the point, suicide is an option. The boys, Biff and Happy are being unsociable towards Willy and he isnt able to cope with all of the dilemmas that he is putting up with at that point. (I dont know what else to write in the conclusion, I have followed the guidelines but I dont know how to conclude about the relationships.)
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Primate distribution in southern India Primate distribution in southern India The Western Ghats of India is one of the biological Ã¢â¬Ëhot spotsÃ¢â¬â¢ of the world (Myers et al., 2000). The western slopes and the ridges of these hills are covered with evergreen tropical rainforests. The eastern slopes and the adjoining Deccan plateau harbor mainly deciduous forests. The Western Ghats are divided into two regions: the southern and the northern Western Ghats, south and north of the Palghat Gap respectively. The rainforest regions are particularly rich in arboreal mammals and avifauna. Among the mammals, the most obvious species are primates and squirrels. The distribution of nonhuman primates varies in the two regions of the Western Ghats. Lion-tailed macaques occur from the southern tip of the Western Ghats, up to north of Sharavathy River, where the rainforests of the medium altitude end. Bonnet macaques and Hanuman langurs occur throughout the Ghats. The distribution of Nilgiri langur from the southern tip of the Western Ghats ends in the north at Brahmag iri, the region which also marks the end of Cullenia dominated forests (Pascal, 1988). South of Brahmagiri Hills, all four primate species are found in the forests of the Ghats. Primarily, bonnet macaques and Hanuman langurs are found in the dry deciduous forests of the eastern slopes, whereas lion-tailed macaques and Nilgiri langurs are found in the rainforests at the ridge and the western slopes. Each major forest type, therefore, is inhabited by a macaque which is a frugivorous species, and a langur which is a folivorous species. In certain areas of the southern Western Ghats, the bonnet macaques seasonally intrude into the rainforests and become transiently sympatric with lion-tailed macaques and Nilgiri langurs (Sushma, 2004). Habitat specialists and habitat generalists Species that make use of a wide range of resources or habitats are generalists and they tend to be widely distributed, whereas species that make use of a narrow range of resources or habitats are specialists and they often have a limited distribution (Brown, 1984; Hanski, 1982; Hanski and Gyllenberg, 1997). According to Hanski and Gyllenberg (1997), the biogeographic distribution patterns of specialists are the result of their using relatively smaller habitats than those exploited by generalistÃ¢â¬â¢s species. Generalists and specialists use different cues to locate their habitat and necessary resources. The ecological niche occupied by a species results from trade-offs in the fitness gained in different habitats or on different resources, and the level of specialization of an organism should reflect these trade-offs (Bonsall et al. 2004). Generalists have an advantage in exploiting a wider range of resources, whereas specialists are assumed to be more efficient at using a particular resource (Strickler 1979). To survive and reproduce organisms must extract energy from substances present in the environment. However, not all organisms extract the same energy from the same sub-stances. Different organisms may specialize in the type of food they eat. The internal food-processing mechanism of an organism (gut, colon, metabolism, etc.) tends to become adapted to the particular diet in such a way that the quantity of energy the organism is able to extract from each food type is determined evolutionarily. Langurs Langurs could be considered a model for the study of social organization since they inhabit variety of ecological conditions (Sterck, 1999; Karanth et al, 2010; Karanth, 2010). They are known to exploit diverse habitats from thick forests to human dominated landscapes (Fooden, 1980; Prater, 1993; Kumara et al, 2009; Sharma et al, 2009). Even though certain traits such as male dispersal (Rajpurohit, 1987; Rajpurohit and Mohnot,1988; Sommer and Rajpurohit, 1989; Rajpurohit and Sommer, 1993; Launhardt et al, 2001; Borries et al, 2004; Sharma et al 2009;), female philopatry (Sterck, 1997; Sterck, 1998; Koenig, 2000; Koenig et al 2004; Sterck, 2005), infant transfer (Poirier, 1968; McKenna, 1979; Scollay, 1980; Stanford, 1992;Kumar, 2005; Brent, 2008) etc. are common to all langur species, striking habitat related differences are observed in their group composition and social organization (Sterck, 1998; Koenig et al, 1998; Sterck,1999; Harris, 2006; Snaith Chapman, 2007; Wich Sterck, 20 07). Hence studies on inter-specific differences in behavioral ecology of langurs can provide insight into some of the crucial questions of social systems and individual behavior patterns of these species. Hanuman langurs / Nilgiri langurs South Asia is home to 15 species of langurs (Walker Molur, 2007). Nilgiri langurs are usually found in tropical evergreen forests of the Western Ghats at an altitude of 500 meter above sea level (Sunderraj, 2001; Sunderraj Johnsingh, 2001) whereas the Hanuman langurs are distributed all over the Indian subcontinent-including several species/subspecies such as S. e. achates, S. e. hypoleucos/S. hypoleucos, S. e. priam/S. priam priam (Kumara et al, 2009; Sharma et al, 2009; Karanth et al, 2010; Karanth, 2010). Nilgiri langurs are known to be largely habitat specialists (Singh et al 1997; Sunderraj, 1998) and Hanuman langurs are habitat generalists (Kumara et al,2009; Sharma et al; 2009). Because of a restricted range of occurrence, it is expected that the Nilgiri langurs show less genetic variability and thus less flexibility than the Hanuman langurs. Nilgiri langurs are mainly arboreal (Poirier, 1968; Sunderraj, 2001) whereas Hanuman langurs tend to be more terrestrial (Roonwal Moh not, 1977). Hanuman langurs are more adaptable influenced by availability and distribution of food (Chhangani Mohnot, 2006). Home ranges of Hanuman langurs are larger and they overlap extensively (Chalise, 1995; Chhangani, 2000; Chhangani Mohnot, 2006). Nilgiri langurs are more territorial and occupy smaller home ranges (Poirier, 1968; Sushma, 2004). In Hanuman langurs, the groups can be one male bisexual, multimale bisexual or all male band groups (Borries, 1997; Koenig et al, 1997; Sharma et al, 2009) and Nilgiri langurs are primarily one male bisexual groups (Poirier, 1968; Sunderraj, 2001). Behavioural studies on Hanuman langurs have been intensively carried out at various locations in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka (Monhot and Srivastava, 1992; Rajpurohit et al. 1994). However, in India, these studies have been conducted mainly in arid environment (Rajpurohit et al. 1994) and in dry/moist deciduous forests (Vasudev, 2006). Hanuman langurs are successful in their ability to adapt to a wide variety of habitats showing high social flexibility making them the ideal species for studies. However, very little has been known about the rainforest Hanuman langurs expect for one study on feeding ecology (Singh et al, 2011; Roy et al. 2012). It will be of interest to explore the social adaptations in the rainforest Hanuman langurs and to see how their behavior have evolved in comparison to arid environment. Studies on Nilgiri langurs suggest that the social structure and relationships and their behavioural patterns resemble that of Hanuman langurs (Poirier, 1968; Tanaka, 1965). Changes in ecological factors like habitat destruction and fragmentation, langur habitats may have been reduced leading to changes in group composition and social system (Sunderraj and Johnshingh, 2001). The present study will be conducted to better understand both langur speciesÃ¢â¬â¢ behavioural patterns and social systems to explore and carry out comparative analysis on differences in their present environmental conditions. The aim of the present study is to employ same methodology to study the behavioral ecology of Nilgiri langurs and Hanuman langurs and attempt a quantitative comparative analysis. Hence, the study has been designed with the following title. Looking for behavioral flexibility TRAITS TO BE STUDIED Life history traits On the base of the above mentioned differences between the two species. The life history of hanuman langur is expected to be more of r-type and Nilgiri langur to be more of K-type. Being primarily the dwellers of rainforests, Nilgiri langurs are expected to be more efficiency oriented whereas Hanuman langurs, being habitat generalists, are expected to be more reproductive efficiency oriented. This may result in differences in birth dynamics such as net reproductive rates, duration of infant dependency on the mother and infant development patterns. It is also suggested that different habitats and group dynamics may have an influence on reproductive (Rajpurohit et al, 1994) or competitive efficiency. Social system Large interspecific variation in group size is seen in Hanuman langurs (Sterck, 1998; Sterck, 1999; Sharma et al, 2009) whereas Nilgiri langurs tend to cluster around the mean (Joseph Ramachandran, 2001; Sunderraj, 2001). Female between group aggressions and infanticide (Rajpurohit et al, 2003; Rajpurohit Chhangani, 2003; Sharma et al, 2009) has been recorded only in Hanuman langur (Sterck, 1998) and not in any other langur species (Van schaik1992). Although the moving range of Nilgiri langur and Hanuman langur are found to be similar (0.1km and 0.15km respectively), Nilgiri langurs are said to travel less due to availability and abundance of food resources in their habitat (Tanaka, 1965). The Nilgiri langur has a unimale social system which is formed when juvenile males in a group mature to adulthood and then the group fissions into smaller unimale groups. In Hanuman langurs, group composition is formed according to the availability and distribution of food and space. There are three types of groups in Hauman Langurs, which are unimale, multimale and all male groups. A linear hierarchy exists amongst the females in Nilgiri langur where as in Hanuman langurs dominance hierarchy among females is less definitive than among males. Dominance hierarchies in Hanuman langurs were found to be significantly linear and relatively stable, but less so with increasing group size (Koenig, 2000). Individual behaviour Compared to Macaca, langurs show less frequent individual behavior differences (Tanaka, 1965). Although Nilgiri langur and Hanuman langur are relatively similar in their group size, composition and organization and also in behavioural patterns, intra- and inter- group activities are seen less in Nilgiri langurs when compared to Hanuman langurs. Behaviors like grooming, mounting and presenting, juvenile plays, etc were observed to be less frequent among Nilgiri langurs. Sugiyama (1965) observed that langurs travel widely when the food availability was sparse. In Nilgiri langurs, the habitat is usually forage abundant and good quality resulting in lesser travel. In Hanuman langurs the range size differs on the availability and quality of food in their distributional habitat/zone. As a result, more varied vocal communication is expected in Hanuman langurs than Nilgiri langurs. STUDY GROUPS One group each of Hanuman Langur and Nilgiri langur has been selected. Hanuman langur Ã¢â¬â Many intensive studies have been carried out on the populations of Hanuman langurs in arid, deciduous and semi-evergreen habitats. Since there is a lack of systematic and long-term study on rainforest Hanuman langurs, the present study will be carried out in rainforests of the Western Ghats at Gerusoppa, Uttara Kannada district. A unimale group (total 17) with 8 females, 5 juveniles/subadults and 3 infants has been selected. Nilgiri langur- For comparative analysis, a study group in Nelliyampathy, Kerala (Western Ghats) has been selected. A unimale group (total 14) with 8 femals, 3 juveniles and 2 infants has been selected. STUDY AREA The study area is low altitude degraded coastal evergreen rainforest in the Western Ghats of north Karnataka in Uttara Kannada district (Gerusoppa). Forest is mainly Dipterocarpus-Holigarna-Persia species with an average altitude of 650 m with an average annual precipitation of 4200mm with relatively high humidity of 95%. Ecologically this stretch of forest is important because, this is the northern most distribution of lion tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) which is sympatric with bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) and western hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus achates) (Kumara and Singh, 2004). Nelliyampathy is a Hill Station on the Western Ghats mountain ranges in Palakkad, Kerala. The green lush forest covers the whole hill area with coffee, tea, cardamom, vegetable and orange plantations. Nelliyampathy plateau lies at an altitude of 500-1000m. Major vegetation is evergreen, semi evergreen and moist deciduous. The forest mainly comprises of Cullenia, Mesua and Palaquim (Ramachandran and Joseph 2000). Three species of primates namely Bonnet Macaque, Lion tailed Macaque and Nilgiri langur are found in this habitat. Study Parameteres 1. To study the general activity pattern of the study species a. What are the different types of activity they do? b. What is the duration of different observed activities of each species? 2. To study the different social behaviour within a single group of each species a. Which are the socio-positive behaviour (like play, groom, inter- individual distances etc.) within a single group? b. Which are socio-negative behaviour (aggression, fight, bark etc.) within a single group? c. What kind of reproductive behaviour are shown in the adult individuals of a single group? 3. To study the inter-group interaction of each study species a. What is frequency of inter-group interaction with the neighbouring group of each study species? b. What kind of inter-group interaction they show with their neighbouring group? 4. To study the demography and social structures of the study species a. What is the group size of each study species? b. What is the age-sex ratio of the respective groups? OBSERVATIONAL METHODS Three methods have been adopted in this study for data collection they are: Ad libitum sampling The data is in the form of notes for events as and when they occur. We simply note down whatever is visible and seems relevant at that time. The events include identity of the individual and direction of agonistic encounter like threat, attack, dominance mount, subordinate present and displacement among individuals of a group. It is useful during preliminary observation or for recording rare but important facts. Focal animal sampling One individual was the focus of observations during a particular sample period of 5 minutes-Usually for several different categories of behaviour. What is recorded here is the behaviour of those individuals that are most easily observed. The choice of the focal individual is determined prior to the observation. During this period the time spent by the individual on different activities is recorded. It is also important to record certain aspects of other individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour such as interaction with others and to whom a behaviour is directed. When the focal individual moves completely out of sight the recording would be stopped until it is visible again. Scan Sampling Instantaneous sampling or scan sampling was used here to study the different activity pattern of the individual animals. The methods involved collecting data on all visible individuals of the group. This was done for a period of 5min in which each individual was observed and data was collected through a pre-formatted data sheet. Data on distance between the individuals (any two particular individuals, one is nearest and other is distant one at an instant of time) was collected through scan sampling. During a scan, the data was gathered on: Date; Time; Individual (with identity); Activity (including Resting, Ranging, Foraging; Feeding on insects, Feeding on plant (specify the plant part being used), Social behavior; Substratum used (while feeding on insects); Place (tree or ground); Height of the tree; Height at individual was seen; Plant species (when the individual fed on plant food). Definition of Activities: Resting Ã¢â¬â Passivity lasting at least 5 seconds; Ranging Ã¢â¬â Travel and movement; Feeding Ã¢â¬â Ingestion of plant or animal food; Foraging Ã¢â¬â Searching for food; Social behavior Ã¢â¬â Any interaction between/among conspecific individuals. Study Period The study on Nilgiri langurs was carried out in Nelliyampathy reserve forest, nenmara forest division in Palakkad district of kerala.We observed the group of Nilgiri langurs from December 2010 to April 2011 and from April 2012 to January 2013 as a part of a large study on the behavior of primates in the Western Ghats. The amount of time spent on focal animal sampling was 235 h and 915 scans were collected. The study on S.hypoleucos was carried out in Gerusoppa forest division in the state of Karnataka.We observed the group of S.hypoleucos from January 2011 to April 2012 as part of the same study. The amount of time spent on focal animal sampling was 270 h and 1070 scans.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Contract Law Legal Advice Example Legal Advice 1. The shop is relying on an exemption clause.Ã Customer A is likely to have a remedy against the shop under schedule 3 of the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations (1999) which disallows a business to exclude a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s legal rights.Ã In this instance, customer A may seek provision under the Sale of Goods Act 1979 s 14 (2) (goods must be of satisfactory quality) as amended by the Sale of Goods Act 1994 if the shop does not assist her. 2.Ã Customer B may be able to rely on undue influence, the main case being National Westminster Bank v Morgan where it was held the claimant must not suffer from manifest disadvantage.Ã Undue influence simply means unfair pressure on a party when forming a contract.Ã The shop may argue there was no special relationship between the parties, in which case it is for customer B to prove this (Williams v Bayley).Ã Following the decision in Lloyds Bank v Bundy, the question may be whether there was Ã¢â¬Ëinequality of bargaining strengthÃ¢â¬â¢ the shop acted as an agency for the HP financers.Ã In this case, the creditor (financers) may be unable to enforce the contract against customer B (Kingsnorth Trust v Bell) if customer B can successfully plea undue influence then the contract may be rendered voidable (set aside). 3.Ã In relation to customer C, she may be able to rely on the Sale of Goods Act 1979 as amended by the Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994, which states under s.13, that the goods must be as described (see: Beale v Taylor).Ã There must be a reliance on the description of goods as decided in: Grant v Australian Knitting Mills Ltd, but in this instance the customer is entitled to a remedy against the shop. 4.Ã Customer D is seeking to bring a complaint for fraudulent misrepresentation under the Misrepresentation Act 1967.Ã Stating that the childminders were qualified is a false statement of fact (Bisset v Wilkinson).Ã Defined in Derry v Peek, fraudulent misrepresentation is a statement where there are several factors, one of which is a Ã¢â¬Ëreckless statement made without caring whether it was true or notÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã In this instance, the shop is liable for all damages, including all loss, to the customer (Smith New Court Securities v Scrimgeour Vickers).Ã 5. Neighbours are seeking to complain over a private nuisance. It can be defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"continuous, unlawful and indirect interference with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s enjoyment of landÃ¢â¬ Ã Balance must be stuck between conflicting interests, namely the shop needing its deliveries and the neighboursÃ¢â¬â¢ peace in the morning.Ã Has the duration being continuous? (Bolton v Stone)Ã The shop being aware of the problem, if it fails to address the issue, then it may be liable for nuisance (Leakey v National Trust). 6.Ã The shop has a duty of care under the OccupierÃ¢â¬â¢s Liability Act 1957, s 2 (1) towards visitors, in this case invitees to the shop (s. 1 (2)).Ã The shop must take Ã¢â¬Ëreasonable steps to inform a visitor that an area is out of bounds.Ã It did so in this case, with the notice on the door.Ã Ã Under s. 2 (3) (a) of the OLA 1957, the shop must be prepared for children to be less careful than an adult.Ã However, the shop is entitled to be assured that the behaviour of a young child should be supervised by an adult (Phipps v Rochester Corporation).Ã Therefore, this part of the claim may fail since the mother did not keep her child under supervision. In relation to her claim for nervous shock, there is a 3 stage test as outlined in Alcock v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police, namely: a). Was the mother in sufficient proximate time and space to the incident?Ã b) There must be close ties of love and affection to the victim c) The claimant must have seen or heard the incident or its immediate aftermath.Ã As all these answers are in the affirmative, then it is likely this part of the claim may be successful against the store. 7.Ã The shop is liable for injury to F under the EmployerÃ¢â¬â¢s Liability Act 1969, s1. F is no longer required to pursue the manufacturer as the shop has informed her, although she may do so if she wishes.Ã F (employee) must show: a) That the defect in the equipment caused the accident and b) That the defect was due to a fault in the manufacture. In this part, the employer is liable directly to F. With FÃ¢â¬â¢s claims for bullying, the shop is liable under vicarious liability, since this is a tort by an employee acting in the course of their employment.Ã A noted case for this was outlined in Jones v Tower Boot Co 8.Ã An advertisement is an invitation to treat, where the customer makes an offer to buy (Partridge v Crittenden).Ã There may only be revocation of an offer where response is made to an invitation to treat (Payne v Cave).Ã In this case the customer accepted the terms of the offer and is entitled to the goods as stated (Lefkowitz v Great Minneapolis Surplus Stores).Ã 9. The shop is liable under the Consumer Protection Act 1987.Ã The fact that HÃ¢â¬â¢s sister did not make the contract is irrelevant as the case of Stennett v Hancock illustrated that a duty of care is owed to a person receiving presents from the original buyer (H). Under s. 2 (1) of the CPA 1987, the supplier (shop) is liable, since the customer cannot identify or contact the manufacturer.Ã 10.Ã The shop owes K a duty of care as outlined in the Ã¢â¬ËneighbourÃ¢â¬â¢ principle of Donoghue v Stevenson.Ã To prove negligence, there must have been a duty, that duty was breached and causation. Therefore, the shop is negligent in this case.Ã Also, K may have a claim under the Consumer Protection Act 1987 which places strict liability on anyone in the distribution food chain where a consumer suffers harm. 11.Ã This contract is frustrated.Ã In the case of Taylor v Caldwell, it was determined that where a contract depends on a given thing (in this case 100 copper saucepans), and there is impossibility of performance of the contract, then the performance should be excused.Ã Both parties are discharged from further performance in this case as the supplier cannot supply the order requested. 12.Ã Part payment of a debt can never be satisfaction for the whole payment as outlined in PinnelÃ¢â¬â¢s Case (1602).Ã This has since been confirmed in Foakes v Beer and Re Selectmove.Ã Further, if the money is unable to be recovered at a later date, the doctrine of promissory estoppel applies where further rights to recover the remaining sum will be extinguished (High Trees case) 13.Ã This is a case of pure economic loss.Ã The negligent driver does not owe a duty of care to the shop as there was no damage to the shopÃ¢â¬â¢s property (Spartan Steel v Martin).Ã Based on policy guidelines, the loss of profit to the shop is Ã¢â¬Ënon-recoverableÃ¢â¬â¢ to avoid the driver from a Ã¢â¬Ëcrushing liabilityÃ¢â¬â¢. 14.Ã This is a negligent statement on the part of the accountants.Ã In Hedley Byrne v Heller, the House of Lords held that a Ã¢â¬Ëhigh degree of proximity or closeness of relationship is required, and for liability to arise, a special relationship has to be shown between the maker of the statement and the person who relied on it.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã XYZ should be able to sue the accountants. Bibliography Charman, M, (2002), Contract Law, 2nd edn, London, Willan Publishing Giliker, P and Beckwith, S., (2004) Tort, 2nd edn, London, Sweet and Maxwell Martin, J and Turner, C., (2001) Contract Law, London, Hodder Stoughton Martin, J and Turner, C., (2001) Tort Law, London, Hodder Stoughton Richards, P, (2002), Law of Contract, 5th edn, London, Longman Publishing
Monday, August 19, 2019
My Dream of Becoming an Attorney Ã After graduating from high school I was ambivalent about going to college. In high school I was not a very motivated student, but I knew I possessed the ability to be successful academically, given the proper encouragement. I chose Suffolk County Community College's Selden campus as my springboard into higher education. At Suffolk I developed the academic skills necessary to excel at the university level. The work was very challenging at times, but the faculty was very involved with their students. I became very fond of this atmosphere and decided to find a university with similar qualities. Small classes, an environment conducive to learning, and a welcoming atmosphere were high on my list of priorities, and Adelphi University's Garden City campus possessed these qualities. Ã My experience at Adelphi has been extraordinarily enlightening. Adelphi has small classes and caring faculty, which made the transition from a community college to a university very comfortable. The work is challenging at times, but it is also intellectually stimulating-the combination contributes to my academic success. Ã I have a strong desire to study law after graduating from Adelphi, and one of the best academic decisions I made was to major in political science. Everyone in the political science department, from the chairperson down, has been an important asset to my education. Adelphi's political science department is not only blessed with highly qualified professors, but it also hosts special events that complement my coursework and stimulate my interests in this field. Some of these events included luncheons with foreign ambassadors, as well as a dinner with an advisor to four former United States presidents.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Love Canal is located near Niagara Falls in upstate New York. The Canal was constructed as a waterway during the nineteenth century, but was abandoned shortly afterwards. The Love Canal story is essentially the story of the thousands of families who lived unknowingly amongst an abandoned toxic chemical waste dump. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the first time in U.S history where this has happened, nor was it the worst, but it did grab the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. In the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s before the Love Canal area was turned into neighborhoods, the Hooker Chemical Company purchased the area and used it as a burial site for 20,000 metric tons of chemicals. In 1953 the Hooker Chemical Company sold the land to the Niagara Falls Board of Education for $1.00. There was a stipulation in the deed, which stated that if anyone incurred physical harm or death because of their buried wastes, they would not be responsible. Shortly after, the land changed hands yet again and this time home building began directly adjacent to the canal. Families who bought homes here were unaware of the waste buried in their backyards. With all the new homes in the area, an elementary school was opened near the corner of the canal in 1955. Soon after the opening, students and teachers began complaining of being burnt, nauseous odors, and black sludge (Gibbs 21). It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t till nearly thirty years later that the government finally decided to investigate the complaints. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hooker admits to burying about 21,800 tons of various chemicals in the canal. There are at least twelve known carcinogens in the canal including benzene which is well-known for causing leukemia in people (Gibbs 22). The air, soil, and water tests have found chemical migration throughout a ten block residential area. The extent of the chemical migration is still unknown. The health effects due to the toxic waste dump are numerous and fatal. There was a high incidence of miscarriages and birth defects in children in the 239 families that lived here. The incident rate was so high that in 1978 New York State of Health issued a Ã¢â¬Å"recommended temporary relocation of ALL pregnant women and children under twoÃ¢â¬ (Gibbs 22). In May of 1980 President Carter declared a health emergency because of the abnormal amounts of chromosomal breakage in the Love Canal residents. In October of the same year the President signed a bill to evacuate all families permanently from Love Canal.
"Tis Pity She's A Whore" by John Ford In this play it would be impossible to accurately assess this idea commenting on Annabella and Giovanni as a single entity. They are extremely different characters with their only common ground being the love they have for each other, and even this is expressed in distinctly different ways with subsequently different consequences. These consequences build up to the conclusion referred to in the question, and so it would also prove hard to answer it directly without having previously discussed what has come before and created such conclusion. At the beginning of the play, I believe that the audience is intended to sympathise with Giovanni. Although his actions are described as 'devilish atheism', this is counterbalanced by his modest language which contrasts greatly to later on in the play. He refers to the Friar as 'Gentle Father' and this humble way of addressing him gives the audience the impression that Giovanni is genuinely asking for help and wants to be 'cured'. Although he argues against much of what the Friar says, his respect for him is obvious as he agrees to take his advice. This may not have carried much weight for the Caroline audience for which this would have been performed, however, as the religion of the English at this time was Protestant, making Catholicism not the favoured denomination. It has even been stated that Ford presented the characters in this play so faulted because of their religious beliefs and nationality, both of which were seen as the enemy. Throughout this scene, Giovanni is attempting to justify his actions and convince the Friar that what he is doing is right, by playing on the religious idea that there is one father, and ... ...how compassion about the consequences of this distorted self-image. (I know I've missed out a bit here, but I think 4 pages is enough and I don't think I could sit here for another Ã ½ hour.) In conclusion, at the beginning of the play sympathy is possible for both characters. Annabella earns more than this during the course of the play, and is likely to be admired by the audiences from both eras, though would probably have been seem as more promiscuous in the time of writing than would be perceived now. Giovanni on the other hand, through use of apocalyptic figurative language shows a too high opinion of himself and is presented as too self-absorbed to induce anything other than contempt. This is accentuated by the death of Annabella being caused by such traits and highlighted by the irony that she had remained to true to him just to die by his hand.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The aspect of disaster has been a prevalent attribute within any societal setting. The strength of the society towards this has been provided by various processes modeled as disaster management strategies. Every community has been therefore at a projected risk of effect by various conceptions of disasters. However, the success of any disaster management process is a compliment of various phases. Mitigation is the process of gaining the knowledge about the disaster and developing possible measures of avoiding the risks involved.It therefore involves an assessment of the probable risks which could affect oneself, property of family. It is the compound of both structural as well as non structural processes and measures that are taken towards limiting the impacts held by the disaster (John, 2005). Preparedness is the process whose aim is mainly to prevent the occurrence of the disaster. It compounds the preparation of the procedures and equipments which could be used when the disaster oc curs. Disaster response implies the probable methods of fulfilling and providing the basic and adequate humanitarian needs that are of importance to those affected.It therefore governs the structures of providing assistance and help for the affected persons to undertaken persuasive process in driving out from the crisis. Disaster recovery process comes after the possible immediate threats and effects to people have subsided. It implies restoring the affected property and people to their former state of living by supplying the very essential necessities and creating conditions for a continued life. (John, 2005) In my community, preparedness towards disaster has been a crucial role. Various structures, policies and processes have been constituted to avoid and deal with risks.Various processes have been developed to create possible environments that prevent risks from their occurrence. It has used mass decontamination, emergency evacuation processes, quarantines, developing emergency s tructures for the support of rebuilding and supporting the society after these occurrences above other fundamental measures. At my personal level, I have been obligated in creating moral awareness on the principles and codes of risks mitigations. This is by providing supportive processes that enlighten the society about the possible measures in disaster control (John, 2005).
Friday, August 16, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"SURVIVOR: PHILIPPINESÃ¢â¬ : An Analysis of the CBS Program Using Three Theories of Communication Sally Annabella Communications 307 Dr. Debbie Way November 2012 No one has died. Some have been medevacked. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a rough game. The CBS television series Survivor is one of the first Ã¢â¬Ëreality tvÃ¢â¬â¢ shows and is now in its 12th year. It features eighteen contestants striving to Ã¢â¬Å"Outwit, Outplay and OutlastÃ¢â¬ each other to win one million dollars by the end of the season.While it is important to be in good physical shape (the challenges are just that, physically challenging) it is imperative to have impeccable communication skills. In watching episodes of the current season, Survivor: Philippines, I have noticed: Communication Privacy Management Theory, Message Design Logics, Uncertainty Reduction Theory, Politeness Theory, and Social Exchange Theory. While this paper only requires three theories to be mentioned, I will show that all five are tied togeth er.Each season Survivor is filmed over a period of 39 days on a different remote island. The contestants are divided into two or three tribes that start out competing against each other in challenges for a) rewards such as fishing supplies or an elegant feast and b) the coveted Immunity Idol, a token that means they will have the chance to play another three days. The tribe that does not win the idol will have to go to Tribal Council (an event that happens generally every three days) and risk being voted out of the game, hence no chance of winning the million dollar prize.About half-way through the season, the tribes merge into one, each player now plays for himself, and the remaining challenges are centered around winning Individual Immunity. All of the remaining players now go to Tribal Council and vote out one player. These ousted players now form the Jury, and they will be the ones to ultimately vote at the end of the game (when there are three remaining players) on who will tak e home the million dollars. Communication Privacy Management Theory, as stated by Dainton and Zelley on page 68, has four main principles. The one most applicable in Survivor involves boundaries.A boundary linkage is formed when two or more parties share information (Dainton and Zelley p. 71) with each owner of the information being responsible for its privacy. Inevitably, when one player finds a hidden Immunity Idol, they cannot seem to keep the information to themselves. They feel they must entrust someone else with this extremely private information and this almost certainly is their undoing. Dainton and Zelley show on page 72 that Petronio in 2002 states that boundary turbulence occurs when the rules for privacy management are not clear.This statement implies that boundary turbulence is unintentional. In watching Survivor, I found that boundary turbulence could also be intentional. In one instance, Player A told Player B she would not tell anyone that he (Player B) was in posses sion of a hidden immunity idol, yet she did tell someone else (Player C. ) Player C then confronted Player B, causing boundary turbulence with Player A. In another instance (and a different set of players), Players A and B together found a clue to a hidden immunity idol. They promised each other not to tell anyone else.Player A then told Player C. Player C seized an opportunity to plant the clue in Player BÃ¢â¬â¢s possessions, making it appear to Player A that Player B had betrayed her, thus creating boundary turbulence. In Message Design Logics Theory, there are three types of communication, expressive (p. 35), conventional and rhetorical (p. 36). Expressive is a sender-focused pattern of communication, concerned primarily with self-expression. Some players do not seem to have a ? lter and allow their thoughts to spew out, whether it be bene? cial to them or not. Conventional operates by rules.In one episode, others in the group let one player know that he was overstepping the li ne of acceptable behavior when he was snuggling with another particular contestant. They pointed out to him that it appeared to the rest of the group that he was in a strong alliance with her. He subsequently stopped sleeping next to her to show the group his allegiance was not tied to her. The more successful players of Survivor communicate in the rhetorical fashion. These individuals Ã¢â¬Å"view communication as a powerful tool used to create situations and negotiate multiple goals (p. 6). Ã¢â¬ They pay close attention to what others are communicating in order to be better able to understand their point of view, and therefore what they might be thinking beyond what they are saying. Those who use this type of communication are seeking a balance between their goals and keeping harmony with the receiver(s), even to the point of protecting another? s feelings (such as by not embarrassing them. ) They want to maintain a good working relationship with the other person in the future. Survivor contestants experience on a daily basis Uncertainty Reduction Theory.Dainton and Zelley point out on page 43 that, according to Berger and Calabrese (1975), humans regularly experience uncertainty, we do not like the feeling, and we use communication to reduce our uncertainties. In the game of Survivor, the players are in a constant state of uncertainty. They know that, by design of the game, they and their co-competitors all have the same goal. And only one of them is going to reach it. They go into the game knowing they are going to form friendships and they are going to have to lie and accept being lied to.One player stated that nobody wants to betray anybody else and nobody wants to feel betrayed. Politeness Theory also comes into play. Dainton and Zelley show on page 60 that if someone has more power or prestige than you, you will be more polite to them. This theory also states that if what you have to say may hurt the receiver of the information, you will be more poli te. Survivor is all about who has the power. The players all want to be the one with the power, whether they want to let the other players know or not.To tie it to Message Design Logics, if they are a rhetorical communicator, they will be more polite to the one perceived as having the power. The expressive communicator, however, will not be so aware of the need to be polite. Another theory that needs to be mentioned is Social Exchange Theory. Dainton and Zelley on page 61 show that Thibaut and Kelley in 1959 maintained that humans, by nature, are sel? sh. We determine the relationships we keep or let go by weighing the bene? ts versus the costs of these relationships. In Survivor, the players are continually assessing their relationships with each ther, strategizing which relationships will thrive and which will be detrimental to their ultimate goal of making it all 39 days and to the million dollar prize. The CBS television show Survivor is a wealth of examples of communication the ories in action. A contestant cannot possibly make it to the end and win the prize of one million dollars without being an exceptional communicator. This means not only being able to convey oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own information (expressive Message Design Logics), but also being able to assess how his/her information is being interpreted (rhetorical Message Design Logics. They also need to be able to read the others that are communicating to them, and determine whether the information being portrayed is truthful or not. While contestants have had to be medevacked for physical issues, they have yet to be involuntarily removed from the game for lack of communication skills. References Dainton, M. , & Zelley, E. D. (2011). Applying communication theory for professional life: A practical introduction (2nd ed. ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Website: CBS Survivor. http://www. cbs. com/shows/survivor/
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Qatar 2022 On 2 December 2010 it was announced that Qatar would host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, after the FIFA Executive Committee voted in a secret ballot in Zurich. The government of QatarÃ¢â¬â¢s successful proposal bid defeated four other candidates to stage the 2022 edition of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest sporting event: Australia, Korea Republic, Japan and the United States of America. Qatar, with a population of 1. 69 million people will be the first Arab state to host the World Cup. Consequently, Qatar is the smallest nation, both by relative population and by area, ever to have been awarded the tournament hosting privilege. The Qatar bid was emphasized as the only one representing the Arab World (which has never hosted a World Cup prior) and positioned their bid as an opportunity to bridge the gap between the Arab World and the West. Their hosting of the 2006 Asian Games as well as the 2011 Asian Cup proved to legitimize their capabilities of hosting the tournament. Further, its superior financial capabilities were evident in their proposals for new stadia and infrastructure. While the decision on 2 December 2010 brought delight to Qatar, it inversely brought concern and controversy in the West. A number of rival candidates, western groups and media outlets have expressed concern over the suitability of Qatar to host the event, with regard to climatic conditions, interpretations of human rights, press freedom and allegations of corruption. Climate: Winter World Cup? The World Cup is traditionally held in the northern hemisphereÃ¢â¬â¢s summer. During this season in Qatar, the temperature can get to 50 Ã °CÃ (122Ã Ã °F). The Qatar bidÃ¢â¬â¢s chief executive, Hassan al-Thawadi has attempted to quell fears of an unbearable environment by stating Ã¢â¬Å"heat is not and will not be an issueÃ¢â¬ and that the 2022 World Cup would benefit from Ã¢â¬Å"state-of-the-art air cooling technologies. Ã¢â¬ The Qatar 2022 BidÃ¢â¬â¢s official site explains this: Ã¢â¬Å"Each of the five stadiums will harness the power of the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s rays to provide a cool environment for players and fans by converting solar energy into electricity that will then be used to cool both fans and players at the stadiums. When games are not taking place, the solar installations at the stadia will export energy onto the power grid. During matches, the stadia will draw energy from the grid. This is the basis for the stadiumsÃ¢â¬â¢ carbon-neutrality. Along with the stadiums, we plan to make the cooling technologies weÃ¢â¬â¢ve developed available to other countries in hot climates, so that they too can host major sporting events. Ã¢â¬ This method of cooling techniques is theoretically able to reduce temperatures from 50 to 27 degrees Celsius. The bidding committee also proposes to use such cooling technologies in fan-zones, training pitches and walkways between metro stations and stadiums. However, the architect in charge of one of the venues has abandoned their project claiming that a more old-fashioned solution would be cheaper and better. Leading firm Populous, which is designing the Sports City stadium in Doha, is trying to persuade Qatari organizers to scrap plans to have air conditioning at the venue. Populous director John Barrow said the system is too expensive and Ã¢â¬Å"notoriously unsustainableÃ¢â¬ for the environment when used on a large scale. Given the debate on the subject, a proposal of hosting a Ã¢â¬Å"Winter World CupÃ¢â¬ has arisen. Backed by the likes of Blatter and Platini, the proposal suggests for the tournament to be held in January of 2022, rather than the summer. Blatter has told reporters Ã¢â¬Å"Personally, now that the decision has been taken [to have the tournament in Qatar], we must play at the most adequate period to have a successful World Cup and to have a successful World Cup we have to do it when it is best for the actors which means winter. Ã¢â¬ However, Mr. Blatter has failed to provide a solution on the effect it would have on European domestic leagues which operate in this period. There is nothing in FIFAÃ¢â¬â¢s rules to prevent a host changing the time of year when a World Cup is played. It is only tradition that dictates this. And the FIFA executive committee has the authority to change any aspect of the World Cup after the decision is made. WorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Conditions Given its lack of sporting infrastructure, the Gulf state must build nine football stadiums in the next ten years- and theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be using primarily migrant labor (over 90% of QatarÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce is made up of foreign migrant workers). Trade union activists are now lobbying FIFA to highlight what they say are poor working conditions in Qatar. International trade unionists say FIFA has the power to impose decent working standards on Qatar and will campaign for the tournament to be moved unless FIFA presses for better conditions. If Qatar is unable to support the tournament on its own, Secretary-General Jerome Valcke has suggested the tournament be shared with neighboring states, such as Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. Alcohol and Homosexuality Qatar is not a dry country. Alcohol can currently be consumed legally in a few clubs, bars, certain hotel restaurants, and the Pearl Island by showing your passport for reporting. Hassan Abdulla al Thawadi, chief executive of the Qatar 2022 World Cup bid, said the Muslim state would also permit alcohol consumption during the event. Specific fan-zones will be established where alcohol can be bought. Though legal with a permit, drinking in public is not permitted as Qatar's legal system is based onÃ ShariaÃ law. The selection of Qatar as hosts attracted controversy, asÃ homosexualityÃ is illegal in Qatar. FIFA PresidentÃ Sepp BlatterÃ stated that Ã¢â¬Å"we (FIFA) don't want any discrimination. What we want to do is open this game to everybody, and to open it to all cultures, and this is what we are doing in 2022. Corruption: Bribery Scandal Six members of FifaÃ¢â¬â¢s executive committee Ã¢â¬â a quarter of the membership Ã¢â¬â were accused by Lord Treisman (Chairman of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s bid) of Ã¢â¬Å"improper and unethical behaviourÃ¢â¬ with two members, Issa Hayatou, of Cameroon, and Jacques Anouma, of Ivory Coast, alleged to received $1. 5 million each in bribes from the Qatar 2022 bid in exchange for their votes. The bribery allegations against Qatar were made in evidence fromÃ The Sunday TimesÃ and published by the committee. As a result, in November 2010, two ExCo members,Ã Reynald TemariiÃ andÃ Amos Adamu, were banned for one and three years respectively. Temarii was also fined 5,000 Swiss Francs, while Adamu was fined 10,000 Swiss Francs. More corruption allegations emerged in the summer of 2011. In May, ExCo member Chuck Blazer claimed fellow members Mohammed Bin Hammam and Jack Warner offered bribes for votes in the upcoming presidential election. As a result of this scandal, Bin Hammam stood down from the June 2011 presidential election and FIFA later suspended both he and Jack Warner. Sepp Blatter stood unopposed and won the election with 186 out of 203 votes. Bin HammamÃ¢â¬â¢s suspension had been met with widespread anger in the Middle East- He was subsequently banned for life in July. Warner responded to his suspension by exposing an email by Valcke in which the Secretary-General suggested Qatar had Ã¢â¬Å"boughtÃ¢â¬ the right to host 2022 tournament. Valcke defended his statement, insisting he was referring to Qatar using financial muscle to lobby legitimately for votes. Ã¢â¬Å"They were a candidate with a very important budget and used it to heavily promote their bid all around the world in a very efficient manner,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"I have made no reference to any purchase of votes or similar unethical behaviour. Qatar 2022's bid team said they Ã¢â¬Å"categorically denyÃ¢â¬ any wrongdoing, and asked for clarification from FIFA on the meaning of the Valcke e-mail. Nevertheless, the scandal has raised concerns over $10 billion of investment and development contracts related to stadiums and hotels for the World Cup in Qatar. Possibility of a Re-Vote Given the developments in corruption and bribery scandals, as well as questions concerning the QatarÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities of hosting the tournament effectively, there is a ground swell of popular support to re-hold the 2022 vote won by Qatar. Blatter has said that a FIFA inquiry into persistent and increasingly detailed claims of corruption could lead to the Executive Committee (ExCo) making the unprecedented move of rerunning the vote. Blatter also conceded that support for re-running the vote was Ã¢â¬Å"circulating around the worldÃ¢â¬ . Such a move would be a monumental embarrassment to FIFA but that has to now be balanced with the equivalent embarrassment of more allegations leaking out.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Induction refers to Ã¢â¬Å"a method of reasoning by which a general law or principle is inferred from observed particular instancesÃ¢â¬ (Flew, 1986, p. 171). The method of inductive inference, in this sense, may be considered as the primary means through which justifications are formulated to show the relationship of evidence towards particular assumptions (Goodman, 1983, p. 13). The process of induction, thereby, may be seen as arising whenever we note that evidence lends support to a hypothesis while in the process failing to establish its deductive certainty. In relation to the aforementioned method, Hume argued that since no necessary connections exists between empirical phenomena, it is always possible that a future observation will prove our inferences wrong no matter how appealing it may have been or how richly supported by past observations. This problem has been referred to as the problem of the uniformity principle [in this sense the lack of such uniformity]. According to the argument, nature has no uniformity. If such is the case, it thereby follows that there is no voucher that ensures the consistency of manÃ¢â¬â¢s most refined predictions. Consider for example, the statement Ã¢â¬Å"Whenever I drop a piece of chalk it will fallÃ¢â¬ . Two claims may be inferred from such a statement: (1) Dropping a piece of chalk causes it to fall and (2) Dropping a piece of chalk tomorrow will thereby cause it to fall. According to Hume, such claims assume the uniformity of nature. The problem however is evident if one considers that if all knowledge of causation is based on experience and all knowledge of experience is based on the faculties of cognition, in order for knowledge of causation to be valid [at all times] it is necessary that the faculties of cognition are infallible. However, such is not the case since conditions for the attainment of understanding are based upon fallible faculties. If such is the case, it follows that manÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the empirical world is obscure thereby providing no solid grounds for the formation of inferences that determine the uniformity of nature from which man derives his causal laws regarding the workings of nature. At this point, it is worthwhile to consider that the aforementioned problem [commonly referred to as HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s problem of induction] stems from HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s critique of the Cartesian claims regarding the powers of reason. According to Descartes, man is in possession of an infallible faculty of clear and distinct perception which if properly exercised is able to grasp various general causal principles a priori. In addition to this, Descartes claims that possession of such faculties enables man to establish the essence of the mind [which is thinking] and the body [which is extension] through the use of pure intellectual insight. If such is the case, man is thereby privy to the acquisition of a priori knowledge regarding the behavior of minds and of things. If such is the case, it follows that man is also privy to the knowledge of the workings of the external world [external to the mind and hence the physical realm]. As was noted at the onset of this paper, HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s critique of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ conception of the powers of reason has thereby resulted to the critique of the process of induction and hence the critique of the assumption regarding the uniformity of nature. It is important to note that HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s claim [as an opposition to DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ aforementioned claim] may be understood in two ways. In the first case, HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s claim may be understood as setting the limits of manÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual capacities [which is evident in his emphasis on the fallibility of our faculties for cognition]. In another sense, one may understand HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s claim as enabling a naturalistic conception of knowledge acquisition thereby enabling the dissolution of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ dualism [evident in DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ distinction of the mind from the body]. The importance of such lies in its emphasis on the necessity to set solid foundations for the acquisition of belief. Within these grounds, it is thereby possible to understand HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s subtitle to A Treatise of Human Nature, which states, Ã¢â¬Å"Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral SubjectsÃ¢â¬ . HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s naturalized epistemology may thereby be seen as an attempt to enable the provision of valid and indubitable grounds for the formation of beliefs within both the empirical and moral realms of human existence.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Business innovating - Coursework Example ry passage point is referred to as a single locus that is able to shape and mobilize the local network and develop control over all transactions between the local and the global networks in market innovation context. Local network is the relationship between various agents in market setting in which optimization of gains is the central focus within the local market while global is the international perspective of the business innovation diffusion in regard to Actor-Network theory. Intermediaries can be defined as entities which make no difference and so can be ignored as they merely transport the force of some other entity more or less without transformation and so are fairly uninteresting. On the other hand, mediators are entities that multiply difference and so should be the object of study as their outputs cannot be predicted by their inputs. The two concepts are derived from actor-network theory. A typical example is silk and nylon and how they are defined in different societal
Monday, August 12, 2019
Summary for the uploaded 5 - Article Example It can also happen from forces outside a community through a process called change from above. Experts argue that linguistic development happens through every generation when children change certain elements of the native language to suit their present situations (William, 2007). It is believed that communities keep passing elements that maintain their language by using children as the agents of transmission. Experts also argue that poor learning skills abilities by children play a crucial role in linguistic change. Linguistic development happens in a pattern similar to the shape of a family tree. This means that the difference learning aptitude between children and adults also influences the way language is transmitted in speech and spread across a community (William, 2007). A language has numerous dialects that are often transmitted through a community. These dialects are used to represent the branches in the family tree model. Branches or dialects that are close to each other tend to have numerous similarities (William, 2007). Just like a tree, any change that is introduced in a language can spread to every branch, albeit in different degrees. This means that certain dialects of a language can fail to change following a change. Discontinuities are also a common feature in linguistic development. They involve a situation when a single dialect of a language becomes more popular, thus overpowering the rest in terms of getting an identity (William,
The Relationship between Liberalism and Feminism - Research Paper Example Feminism is somewhat an expansion of the liberal plan. The relationship between liberalism and feminism is very close but at the same time extremely complicated. The origin of both the principles lies in the materialization of individualism and independence as a common concept of social life; neither feminism nor liberalism is possible without a certain idea of people as independent, free, and being equal individuals, liberated from the recognized, hierarchical ties of conventional culture and society. Although moderation and feminism belong to the same foundation, their supporters have repeatedly been disparate and opposed from the previous two hundred years. The course and range of feminist disapproval of liberal concepts of the community and the public have changed to a great extent in various stages of the feminist plan. An examination of this condemnation is made more complex because liberalism is intrinsically vague about the private and the public and liberals and feminist dif fer about why and where the separation among the two areas should be done, or, according to some modern feminist point of view, if it ought to be separated at all. Feminism is frequently perceived as nothing further than the achievement of the bourgeois and liberal transformation, as an expansion of liberal values and rights to men and women both simultaneously. The need to have equal rights for every individual has been an imperative stance of feminists at all times. Nevertheless, the effort to universalize tolerance and broadmindedness has more influential results than is often cherished because at the end it unavoidably defies the liberalism itself.Ã
Sunday, August 11, 2019
Analysis and evidence-based findings on Alex Color Studio employee's relationship Conflict - Essay Example This approach is more concerned with how workplace relationships progress and how such conflicts can be predicted by examining underlying communication practices, quality of the existing relationships, employees satisfaction, career advancement and performance. Thus, relationship conflicts is a workplace is affected by poor communication strategies, lack of employee satisfactions due to pay or promotions, unavailability of career advancement chances, and the nature and quality of the relationships. The nature of conflicts in Axle Color Studio is mostly relationship conflicts as opposed to task conflicts. Alex and Jackie admitted of there being several cases of relationship conflicts despite their constant argue to their employees not to bring personal conflicts into the salon. The interview revealed that there have been many visible instances of relationship conflicts between staff members which cause strain on assistant-stylist relationship when we are understaffed with assistants. Much of the relationship conflicts identified by Alex and Jackie are traced to the stylistsÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship outside the salon. Due to the fact that the salon has few employees, their relationship is more personal and thus, extends outside the salon and thus external conflicts are extended from outside the salon into the salon. Even though Alex and Jackie have tried to persuade their employees to avoid mixing outside issues with the salon issues relationship conflicts have continued to be inevitable in Axle Color Studio. Stylists in the salon agree that conflict in the salon has very negative energy as conflicts between two employees causes the other employees around them to become stressed out which causes the salonÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere to then become tense and unpleasant. Intensified conflicts results into an overworked staff and it can be translated into their clients too. A client getting an experience in a tense and an unwelcoming environment is not likely to