Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Swing and Bebop free essay sample

Signature music: In the Mood. Played trombone in the Dorset brothers. Played in Ben Pollacks band. Bud Powell 0 piano, Instrumental In the development of bebop. Kenny Clarke C] House drummer at Moutons playhouse. Jay McMahon 0 plants and band leader; his band features the likes of Ben Webster and Charlie Parker. Swing Street CLC reference to 52nd street which hosted major Jazz clubs during the swing and the bebop era.Moutons Playhouse 0 a Harlem jazz club hat saw the emergence of bebop and hosted artists such as Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Christian. The house band included Theologies Monk on piano, Joe Guy on trumpet, Nick Fenton on bass, and Kenny Clarke on drums. Billy Straying 0 famous for his collaboration with Duke Longtime. Billy Bergs 0 Jazz club in Hollywood. Lionel Hampton 0 one of the first to use the vibraphone in jazz. Part of Benny Goodman quartet, along with Gene Koura, Teddy Wilson and Goodman. This group was one of the first racially integrated group to perform.Many renowned artists passed through his group: Dizzied Gillespie, Clifford Brown, West Montgomery, Quince Jones, etc. Earl Hines D The band to follow Duke Longtime at the Cotton Club was Cab Scallywags band. Though classically trained singer in the opera, he always aspired to be in show business. He went to Chicago where he joined the Alabamian, who later changed their name to the Missouri when they moved to New York. Galloway was not a Jazz singer but a showman who surrounded himself with jazz musicians. By the late sasss Cab Galloway was the most successful African American band leader in the country. Milt Hint, Chug Berry, Dizzy Gillespie 0 all played at Cab Scallywags band. Chug Berry was next in line after Coleman Hawkins. When Lester Young was fired from the Fletcher Henderson Band, Berry was the guy to replace him. Jimmy Landlords band was a black band that prided itself In playing dance music with percussion. Sys Oliver, the arranger, was the most famous one to come out of that band. Benny Goodman established himself In New York as a studio musician. He made various records with Red Nichols. When he made records with Billie Holiday, he encountered John Hammond.Hammond invited Goodman to his house to play chamber music, where Benny fell in love with Hammond sister and married her. During the depression, Fletcher Henderson sold many of his arrangements to John Hammond, which became the basis for Goodman band musical library. He later hired Fletcher Henderson to write him some more arrangements. Because Goodman band was the hottest band it aired on the last minutes of a radio show. They went on a national tour and outside New York they found that white people didnt like their music that was too hard-swinging.In order to play something the people could dance to, they played stock arrangements. By the time they came to Los Angels they were ready to Sabina and return home They played at the Palomar Ballroom, ready to play their stock arrangements, when Gene Koura suggested playing something they would enjoy, and they played King Porter Stomp. The show that aired in New York at 1 1 :30, the end of probation. Sing Sing Sing was originally written by Louis Prima, a very light skinned Black musician, which enabled him to perform where other black musicians were not allowed.Jim Muddy 0 Goodman commissioned him to write an arrangement to Sing Sing Sing. The band realized Fletcher Henderson had a similar arrangement called Christopher Columbus. In the end, Benny Goodman version is a mix of the two. In 1938, Hammond had the idea of putting a Jazz concert on a classical stage. These concerts were historically significant because of the first time jazz music was present in a distinguished art form. Benny Goodman was the first white band leader to hire black musicians. He hired Teddy Wilson to play with his trio, after the two met while recording with Billie Holiday.When the band was in Los Angels Goodman encountered Lionel Hampton, and the band became a quartet. The quarter then becomes a quintet when Hammond introduces Goodman to Charlie Christian. Goodman immediately took offense to Charlie Christian and did not want to play with him. Hammond ambushed Goodman to listen to Christian, who established guitar as a solo instrument. Lionel Hampton later struck out with his own band. Roy Eliding, the next in trumpet lineage after Louis Armstrong, was the most influential trumpet player during the swing area, inspiring Dizzy Gillespie.He was also the featured trumpet player in Gene Korunas band. His nickname was Little Jazz. Artier Shaw 0 another famous clarinet player during the swing area. He had a self- identity problem and many times retired and left to Mexico. Shaw moved from playing sax to clarinet, which why his clarinet playing sounds like a sax. Red Nor played the xylophone. He met his wife Mildred Bailey, when he played for Paul Whitewashs band. Bailey is one of the handful singers in the swing era that could be called a Jazz singer. They were nicknamed the swing couple. Stardust by Hobbies Carmichael is the second most recorded piece after SST. Louis Blues. Artier Shahs most famous recorded improvisation is featured in Stardust: it is an example of how some of his music was more dance than Jazz. Jimmy and Tommy Dorset came from Pennsylvania but are considered Chicago style. The Dorset Brothers band was their first together. They were always in conflict. After an argument Tommy walked off the band to form his band. They reunited in the late sasss, and in the sasss they had their own TV show (where Elvis made his TV debut).Tommy Dorset played trumpet but eventually he settled for trombone. His theme song was Im Getting Sentimental over You, which is why he was called The Sentimental Gentleman. His trombone playing was seamless, silky and smooth. Tommy Dorset also introduced Frank Sinatra to the world. Bunny Iberian played with Benny Goodman as well as with Tommy Dorset. He later had his own band but he was a heavy drinker and was not good at enforcing discipline. After Iberian left Dodders band, Tommy had his musicians play Bunnys part in unison as tribute to him.Jimmy Dodders band was more Chicago style than Tommys band. He played both alto sax and vaudeville sax and astonished everyone. His sax playing influenced many, including Charlie Parker. Into the sasss the music stars of the America were the band leaders. The singer got second billing. The first guy to strike out on his own was Being Crosby when he left Paul Whitewashs band. The most popular swing band was Glenn Millers band. Miller played trombone and wrote arrangements for the Ben Pollack band. He also syncopation to familiar tunes. Even though it was the most successful it didnt swing the hardest. Tex Bennie took over Millers band when Millers plane disappeared over the English Channel Miller tried to create a unique sound to his saxophone section by placing clarinet as the lead voice: clarinet lead. In the Mood was Glenn Millers signature tune. It is the number 1 selling instrumental recording written by Joe Garland. AY Clink used to say it would have been better if Glenn Miller had lived and his music die. Important band leader in the swing era was Charlie Barnett, an illegitimate son of wealthy parents.His band was more like a rich mans toy. Like Duke Longtime, he allowed his musicians a lot of freedom. His signature music was Cherokee. BEBOP Bebop is no longer dancing music but music that needs to be listened to. The first natural bebop big band was Earl Hines band. In his early career Hines performed on the piano alongside Louis Armstrong in Chicago. Earl Faith Hines in the early sasss had a big band that was invaded by young beepers. He stole Charlie Parker from Jay Mechanics band. His band never recorded because during that time the American Recording Industry was on strike.In the meantime both Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie were working up the same style on opposite sides of the country (Bird in New York and Dig in Kansas City. ) Monomers Uptown House was another place where bebop emerged. The people who didnt like modern Jazz were nicknamed Moldy Figs. The one responsible for bringing bebop from late night clubs in Harlem to 52nd SST, was Coleman Hawkins. He never changed his own style, but he surrounded himself with young musicians who used his fame to book gigs on 52nd tree. In the Onyx, Dizzy Gillespie kicked Off new tune with a scat o bop, be bop. A music reviewer in the audience related the scat to the new style of music. The drummer at Moutons was Kenny Clarke developed a new style of playing. He explained the development in that musicians were paying so fast that he only played during their pause. This was also true for the piano player at Moutons. Theologies Monk , like Count Basis, realized he does not need to play the rhythm, but simply Jab a chord once in a while, or even Just play notes to outline the harmony. In the bebop withy section the sole responsibility of time lies in the hands of the bass player.The musicians union strike prevented people from listening to bebop on the radio, which shocked them when they heard it for the first time. One of the first bebop records that people were aware of was Charlie Parsers OK-OK. In Earl Hines bebop band there was a young singer named Sarah Vaughn and another singer named Billy Stickiness (often referred to as the black Frank Sinatra). Hines band broke up in 1952. Around that time Stickiness had a huge hit Jelly Jelly. Based on that success, many of former Hines musicians were now part of Stockinets band.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

What made the Industrial Revolution revolutionary free essay sample

What made the Industrial revolution a revolution or revolutionary? † According to Dictionary. com, one definition of a revolution is â€Å"a sudden, complete or marked change of something. † Another definition provided on the site is â€Å"an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed. † Both of these definitions can be applied, at least in part, to the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution was quite different from the other revolutions mentioned in the textbook (Chapter 28), however. The American Revolution took place in the 1770’s and 1780’s when colonists finally dissociated from British rule. The colonists were being taxed due to British debt. They were unhappy with the taxes and trade regulations and boycotted British goods. Lives were lost in battles such as the Boston Tea Party of 1773 and in Lexington in 1775. The Constitution was established granting the new Americans with the rights and freedoms they felt they were not getting from British Parliament. We will write a custom essay sample on What made the Industrial Revolution revolutionary? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They ultimately made a change by fighting to end the British rule over the colonies so that a new government could be established. The industrial revolution was not about battling a government to overthrow it. The industrial revolution was a massive change that had global effects. The industrial revolution ultimately began as Britain switched from wood power to coal power. Deforestation resulted in dwindling resources of wood and the British found that coal was much more abundant. Many inventions of the time impacted the industrial revolution positively. As coal became the ideal source of energy, more coal powered machines were invented. The steam engine, which was designed by James Watt in 1765, burned coal. Ultimately, the use of it became widespread and efficiency was increased. This lead to the invention of the steam powered locomotive in 1815 by George Stephenson. Transportation of goods was suddenly much more practical. The demand for cheap cotton increased and as demand increased, the efficiency needed to increase as well. John Kay invented the flying shuttle, which according to Encyclopedia Britannica, was a device that was mounted on wheels and allowed weavers to weave wider fabrics more quickly than by hand. This invention in 1733 was followed by the invention of the spinning mule in 1779 by Samuel Crompton and the water driven power loom in 1785. Factories also made the production of goods much more efficient. The increased efficiency of the production and transportation of goods lead to a change in the lifestyle of many Europeans and Americans between 1700 and 1900. Populations grew as the standard of living became higher. Children (as well as adults) thrived as poverty decreased, as food became affordable and sanitation was improved. People began to migrate and urbanization occurred. People left the country to move to the cities where factor jobs were attainable. The general way of living changed completely for most Americans and Europeans. The typical American was no longer a farmer living in poverty but instead a factory worker living in the city. In middle class families, men became the main, and sometimes sole, provider for the family. Women stayed home to raise the children and do housework rather than work alongside their husbands as many did prior. Although there were no battles or overthrowing of a government, the way of life changed drastically, arguably more drastically than life had changed for colonists after the American Revolution. People and governments adapted to the industrial demands, much like how colonists changed their government in response to British taxation. The first definition provided may best fit the Industrial Revolution as it was a complete change of the way of life.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

AS Biology Coursework

AS Biology Coursework AS Biology Coursework Below is a short excerpt from an AS biology coursework written on the topic of biological species. The topic is rather broad and serves as an introduction to a narrowed research. Reading the following biology coursework sample, pay special attention to the sentence structure, use of terms, and format. writers are online 24/7 to help you with your coursework writing assignments. Moreover, our free writing blog is full of excellent sample essays and papers. If you need an expertmotivation coursework just follow this link: Species represents a biological balance, and an individual is also a balance or system in equilibrium. Within a species itself, individuals are similar but not identical. The differences are called variations, and when numbers of individuals exhibit the same variation they form a variety. A variety is distinguished from a race because the latter has greater constancy, whereas the former fluctuates in general and tends to disappear, whilst individuals showing such variation engender a line which continues over a larger or smaller number of generations and becomes approximated to the specific type. This is what Galton in 1889 termed "filial regression." Specific characters do exist representing a middle term, and on one side or the other of this average, we find variations which arithmetically follow Gauss's Law, or the Law of Mean Errors of the Calculus of Probabilities. This can be confirmed by taking the more distinctive characters. Thus height, weight, colour of eyes, basic intensity of metabolism, pulse, blood pressure, and so on. In species other than the human we can take for instance the weight of certain seeds, the height of a plant, the number of vertebrae in certain fish, and so forth. The graph showing such variations quantitatively is called a "Galton's curve," and demonstrates that individuals showing typical average characters of the species are the most numerous, whilst divergencies above and below such average diminish in proportion to the degree of variation of the character from the average type. Thus, for instance, the height of individuals: there is an average height, a distinctive feature for each species and t his will be the height of the majority of specimens. There are taller individuals and shorter ones, and the numbers of these outsiders decreases as their height differs more and more from the standard. There is furthermore, as we have repeatedly mentioned, a tendency to revert to the specific standard. Short parents and tall usually have offspring whose height is different from their own and more or less in accordance with the variance of the parents from the average standard. In all of these cases the tendency for "reversion to type," to "balance" in the species, is evident. There may well exist primitive species with a certain degree of stability, fairly constant in form, such as those distinguished by Jordan in 1848 as between the plants and the midpoint of the limits of a Linnaean species. Thus, for instance, in Viola tricolor, Jordan distinguished several dozen various species, independent and stable as regards the transmission of their characters through the seeds: with large, small and middling blossoms respectively identifiable through particular features of the component parts of the blossoms, seeds, and so on. AS Biology Coursework Writing Service AS biology coursework can be a pleasure for some students while it is a real nightmare for the rest. As a result, thousands of students turn to professional coursework writing service offered at our site to get help with their challenging assignments. Our biology writers are able to write customized (written from scratch) coursework on a wide array of topics. We guarantee no plagiarism and no copy/paste! Only original writing! Read also: Expository Essay Essay Writing Tips English Essay Writing Outline Conclusion Writing Cold War History Essay

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 56

Essay Example The various methods that can be applied in the research include participant’s observation. A sample of participants are selected and keenly scrutinised so as to note the characteristics and record appropriately. The other method may include the cross cultural comparison. This may involve the comparison of varied linguistic users basing on their culture. A survey research can also be applied to the research work so as to find the general trend of linguistic aspects. It may also involve interviewing of participants and use of archival research retrieval. Media analysis of the same can be done in order to carry out an efficient historical analysis. There are various indigenous languages that face the risk of extinction. This call for the need of anthropologists to carry out research on the community. In this article, the above methods have been used to carry out the research on pormpraaw which is an aboriginal community in Australia. Native languages which are faced by extinction may be chosen for such analysis in order to prevent the language from extinction. From this linguistic methods analysed from the research, the main objectives of the research are

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Economic History Of The United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Economic History Of The United States - Essay Example Under normal water draft conditions, a barge can carry 2200 tons of dry cargo. Typically a train of 15 barges is pulled through the river by a tow. A one-foot fall in water level requires the loading of each barge to be reduced to 1600 tons to prevent the barges from running aground on sandbanks in the river. This reduced capacity has already caused spot market prices for barge transport to rise by $ 4 a ton. River transportation carries over 60% of US grain exports and 22% of the domestic petroleum and petroleum products. A single train of 15 barges carries as much material as 70 trucks and road transport would not only be far more expensive in fuel cost but also in terms of increased air pollution.  Previously, in 1988, there was similar disruption of river transportation due to drought which led to the construction of dikes on the Mississippi river to release water into the river in the summer months. This year, the Congress has authorized $ 120 million for dredging. River trans portation which is so vital for US commerce still remains subject to the vagaries of the weather.  In our course on The Economic History of the United States, we have learned how the invention of steamboats caused a surge in river transportation of agricultural produce that helped settlers in the mid-west transport farm produce to the population centers in the eastern United States. This improvement in river transportation of materials also led to the development of navigable canals to improve connectivity to the north east.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The painting Drinnen und Draussen, by George Grosz Essay

The painting Drinnen und Draussen, by George Grosz - Essay Example The essay "The painting Drinnen und Draussen, by George Grosz" explores George Grosz's painting called Drinnen und Draussen. There were more shades and the images of the people were not clear. A pillar supposedly served as a dividing wall to visually represent people from the inside, dressed in coats and tie, one with a cigar, and apparently dining in style. These people could be seen as having a good time surrounded by sophisticated and classy ladies. Other objects were clearly painted such as a lamp, a bucket of liquor, an ash tray, to name a few. The faces of the people are all clear exemplifying various expressions of smiling, waiting patiently, listening intently. The colors were also disparate with the outside people being painted in grey, blue, brown, touches of light greens and pinks in matte. The inside portion was more vividly colored in reds, tan, blue, white with clearer and illumined backdrop. One could deduce that the painter intended to relay the message that people se en inside dining places had the luxuries of availing the best of life. The people inside with faces painted in round, clear and donning happy expressions and are well-dressed signify wealth, luxury, richness. The dividing wall also symbolize the demarcation between the rich and the poor – as people from the outside manifest poverty, wanting in financial resources and appropriate access to health care. Their faces were painted as blurred symbolizing obscurity, loss of identity, nameless. The realities of life at the time.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Gender Mainstreaming: Impact and Effects

Gender Mainstreaming: Impact and Effects The Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 approved gender mainstreaming as a key strategy for promoting equality between women and men. Many international organizations including the United Nation were entitled to implement the strategy in their work. In 1997 the Economic and Social Council provided concrete guidelines on how the United Nations should work to incorporate gender perspectives in its work programmes (ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions 1997/2). The importance of the gender mainstreaming strategy was reinforced in the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly to follow-up the implementation of the Platform for Action (June 2000). The strong focus on the advancement of women and gender equality has led to increased international recognition of the importance of gender perspectives, such as poverty reduction, human rights and good governance. Moreover, these perspectives must be taken into account in data collection, analysis, policy making and planning, to ensure the achievement of gender equality, effective and sustainable development and peace and security. Although, it is easy to secure agreement for gender mainstreaming as an important strategy for promoting gender equality, implementation of this strategy has proven more difficult than its predictions. The implementation of gender mainstreaming can primarily require significant changes in how business is done. Trying to bring the realities of both women and men to bear on data collection, analysis, planning and monitoring in all areas of development, requires specific knowledge and capacity. Gender Mainstreaming Definition: the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making womens as well as mens concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. (ECOSOC 1997) Meaning that, gender mainstreaming in all decisions, will take into account that there are women and men in different situations; which will prevent discrimination between the sexes. It is not about few individuales dealing with gender issues, but all individuals are challenged to think about this equality between women and men. Never the less, gender mainstreaming is a strategy to ensure that equality is realized as a state responsibility. However, gender means is not about being women or men, it is taking into considiration the variety and diversity of people, for the reason that we live in a world that is impacted by the allocation of gender roles. People are judged by their behaver based on gender expectations. Therefore, gender mainstreaming is an organizing principle, gender is the analytical point for gender-sensitive work, and equality is the goal to be achieved. The dimensions of gender mainstreaming: Gender mainstreaming is both of gendered political and policy practice and a new gendered strategy for theory of development. As a practice, gender mainstreaming is a practice to promote gender equality. It is also intended to improve the effectively of mainlines of policy by making visible the gendered nature of assumption, process and outcomes. However, as a form of theory gender mainstreaming is a process of revision of key concept to grasp more adequate a world that is gendered, rather than establishing a separate gender theory. (Walby 2005). Reasons for implementation of gender mainstreaming: Gender mainstreaming is not an end in itself, but a means to an end. (Vijayakumar 2006). Gender mainstreaming does not involve developing separate womens projects within work programmes, or even womens components within existing activities in the work programmes. It requires an attention to gender perspectives as an integral part of all activities across all programmes. This involves making gender perspectives more central to all policy development, research, development, implementation and monitoring of norms and standards. It is important to see the linkages between gender mainstreaming and the promotion of equal opportunities and gender balance within the organization itself. Organizational culture and organizational values are important in terms of creating work environments which are encouraging to gender mainstreaming. The gender mainstreaming strategy does not mean that targeted activities to support women are no longer necessary. Such activities specifically target womens priorities and needs, through, legislation and policy development. Women-specific projects play an important role in promoting gender equality. They are needed because gender equality has not yet been attained and gender mainstreaming processes are not well developed. Gender mainstreaming strategies and gender equality strategies are important for reducing existing gaps, serving as a channel for promotion of gender equality and creating a constituency for changing the mainstream. Gender mainstreaming can create an empowering space for women. Gender mainstreaming strategies, that focuses on men support promotion of gender equality by developing male buddies. It is vital to understand that these two strategies, gender mainstreaming and womens empowerment, are in no way in competition with each other. (Braams 2007). Gender empowerment strategies have worked for year on capacity building for women themselves. However, Gender mainstreaming can be one of the most effective Strategies supporting gender equality. Gender mainstreaming is a way of ensuring that policy and decision-making take account of womens and mens different interests and needs. For gender mainstreaming, decision-making on policy measures and priorities has to be organized in a way as to do justice to the differences between men and women. (EC 2007). Gender mainstreaming policy should respond to changes in requirements, interest and perception with regard to womens and mens social roles, as it promotes equality. Moreover, it cant be accomplishes by one actor, it is a combination on individuals and organizations at all level. Gender Mainstreaming helps in the following qualities at work; first, gender mainstreaming it focus on equitable distribution of resources between women and men. Second, Gender mainstreaming supports for equal opportunities policy at all levels of the organization. Third, Gender mainstreaming supports for equal opportunities policy at all levels of the organization; engendering of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Never the less, Gender equality and the right to equal participation in all sectors of society are fundamental Human Rights. Gender mainstreaming is a process for ensuring equity, equality and gender justice in all of the critical areas of the lives of women and men. (Vijayakumar 2006). Moreover, it increases the effectiveness and eficiency of the work. It is known that men are more rational and women are more emotional, lets asume the assumption, then the brainstorming and decisions made will be better if they are taken by both sexes. The Implementation: Gender mainstreaming should be implemented at two levels; the organization and organization programmes, in order to benefit from it the most.( World Bank 2003). The Organization: In order for and organization to contribute to greater gender equality should have the following structures, policies and procedures in place. First, a clear policy on its commitment on gender police, and it is supported by senior and middle management. Second, Human resources practices that is sensitive to the gender needs and interests of both women and men on the organizations staff, as well as in their constituency. Third, Internal tracking and monitoring capacity to ensure that the strategy is being reached, and this may include some monitoring on staff recruitment and promotions and the performance of managers and supervisors in discussing and following up on gender equality initiatives. Fourth, a central gender mainstreaming unit with policy responsibility and mandate to guide the overall gender mainstreaming process. Finally, a recognized network of staff responsible for gender equality issues in their respective work units, coordinated as a team by the policy unit. The organizations programme: Effective gender mainstreaming strategy therefore includes at least the following programming elements. First, Project management that is technically proficient, aware of the implications of gender differences for project outcomes, remains in touch with the constituency, and establishes positive incentive and accountability mechanisms to ensure consistent results is extremely important. Second, an effective monitoring and reporting mechanisms capable of reflecting how far the project is contributing to greater gender equality. Finally, Gender analysis that explores the national and international context in which the concerned communities are operating, clarifies the ways in which this context impacts differently on women and men and the implications of these differences for project activity. However, hat might appear to be minor actions actually represent major life-changing moves for women and men, given the dynamics that existed before gender mainstreamed programmes. Given the traditional and financial constraints hat combine to keep women a safe distance from making the inconsequential decisions and choices, these seemingly small-step decisions are massive. Gender mainstreaming outcomes and benefits: Women are not newcomers to the working world as some may believe, but their role is changing, as are the socials values. Historically womens work has been relegated to the home. But, it was not always so, for most of human history, work and the rest of life were completely integratedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦with the industrial revolution, the workplace moved out of the family, homeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the workplace became mens domain; and women came to bear the responsibility of supporting the family. (Rao, Stuart, Kelleher.1999) Today, women account for nearly fifty percent of the workforce but for less than 4 per cent of the nations top executives. Women managers are clustered into administrative and support functions. (Kaila.2005) Gender mainstreaming can be associated with many benefits including: assisting in achieving better gender data collection and analysis, ensures economic security for both sexes, achieving equal value for paid work, achieving a gender balance and achieving equal participation of women and men the rights of women and men. (Rea 2007) First, assists in achieving better gender data collection and analysis; this will inform the integration of a gender perspective in the development of all organizations policies, processes, systems and structures. It will also provide the gender analysis which is critical to the development of effective gender action measures to tackle specific gender inequalities Second, ensures the economic security of both men and women, as it addresses the gender inequalities which lead to poverty. Third, achieving equal value for paid work, equity, done by women and men; including the equitable sharing of work and family and caring responsibilities. Fourth, achieving a gender balance, on all level of the organization. Fifth, ensures the active and equal participation of women and men at all levels of organization. Finally, promotes and protects the rights of women and men by increasing awareness of their different needs and potential to have the same opportunity to live a fulfilled life. Never the less, Gender mainstreaming can be associated with many benefits including: Quality improvements enhance the effectiveness of the administration process, Enhance participation process, financial benefits and improve the organizations image. Limitations and restrictions on gender mainstreaming: The limitations of gender mainstreaming are easy to solve, but their solutions are costly. Main limitations are identifying partner, commitment of senior management, fund raising, instruments and up- to date data on gender issues. (Taylor 1999). First, to effective implementation of gender mainstreaming partners are requires, identifying them, raising their awareness of the importance of this concept and making them write reports Second, commitment of senior managers is absolutely necessary. If senior managers pass on the message, support it and strengthen it, half the way is achieved. However, senior managers are generally only convinced to convey a message if their political superiors are committed to a cause. Third, Gender mainstreaming is an investment in the overall quality of policy. The costs of this quality improvement should therefore be counted as regular policy costs. Staff, experts and budgets should be made available Fourth, adequate instruments of measurements, manuals, monitoring procedures and evaluation procedures for gender mainstreaming should be tailored to the address the organizations needs. This will need experts to perform them. Fifth, in order to benefit from gender mainstreaming implementation, staff members should have up-to-date knowledge and awareness of gender issues. Hiring experts to keep monitoring the updated material about gender issues and presenting it to the staff can be the solution and may be costly. Conclusion: Equality, which is the corner stone of democratic nations, successful organizations and a basic human right, are time and space dependent phenomena. At least three historical waves of approaches to equality between the sexes can be distinguished (Ress, 1998). Through the strategy of gender mainstreaming, different realities of women and men are aware of and made clear, the observance of the gender perspective is an essential decision criterion for suitability and quality of the measure. The gender mainstreaming process makes no institutional gender politics unnecessary, as shown by the present analysis indicates that women are disadvantaged in many areas yet. The instrument of women is therefore still need to be applied long! What is new is that the gender mainstreaming approach also includes the situation of the men in our society in the analysis. A major obstacle to successful mainstreaming is the attitudes and cultures in our development organizations, which carry the baggage of their own quite traditional male cultures of work and power. These attitudes and cultures continue to be transferred in practice at home and in the field. Finally, International Labor organization should strengthen its policy and programmes on gender equality and decent work, support gender sensitive policy formulation, work with governments and social partners on employment and job creation, strive to improve the understanding and application of the principle of equal remuneration for women and men for work of equal value. Recommendations: Increase the involvement of men as partners: Successful gender mainstreaming calls for a deeper involvement of men at all levels. It is also requires a greater sensitization of men to the larger issues at stake. Activist women point to the need for men for men to become involved in Men in Development and Mens Empowerment program. Work on Government policy change: According to NGO Activists: Government is supportive are words, they make very good pronouncementsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ yes, lip service, very good. Action is where we think there is a problem. We think that there is no political will; real political will is to be able to implement. Sensitize women in power: Efforts must be also be made to deepen the sensitization of those few women in power and ensure their gender consciousness. Networking: Network is critical in moving women from immediate community activities into broader regional and national areas of related concern. Networking also presents opportunities to bridge the gap between urban and rural women as well as divides of class, religion and age in order to build strong cohesive force. Hazards of Volcanoes: Minimising the Risks Hazards of Volcanoes: Minimising the Risks A natural hazard is defined as a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage (UNISDR, 2009). It is clear that volcanoes pose a huge threat to human life and can also have major economic impacts. This short essay aims to present the hazards that arise due to volcanoes and look at what measures are currently (or should be) being taken in order to minimise the risks taken by living in close proximity to one. Primary Volcanic Hazards http://earthquakescanada.nrcan.gc.ca/nazko/IMG012.jpgThe main and most obvious hazard that occurs due to a volcano (depending on the type) is the eruption. For volcanoes such as Kilauea in Hawaii the effusive eruption is less dangerous due to the lower pressure and lava tends to be erupted rather than other materials. The main hazard from these types of eruptions is the lava itself, which can reach widespread areas in some cases and destroys most things in its path. Volcanoes similar to Mount St. Helens in Washington, USA have extremely dangerous explosive eruptions (also known as Vesuvian eruptions) which involve many different hazards in themselves. Massive quantities of ash-laden gas are violently discharged to form a cauliflower-shaped cloud high above the volcano (Tilling, 1985). A report by (Myers Brantley, 1995) describes the effects of the blast from an eruption such as this: An explosive eruption blastsmolten and solid rock fragments (tephra)into the air with tremendous for ce. The largest fragments (bombs) fall back to the ground near the vent, usually within 2 miles. The smallest rock fragments (ash) continue rising into the air, forming a huge, billowingeruption column. Eruption columns can be enormous in size and grow rapidly, reaching more than 12 miles above a volcano in less than 30 minutes. Once in the air, the volcanic ash and gas form an eruption cloud. Large eruption clouds can travel hundreds of miles downwind from a volcano, resulting inash fallover enormous areas Another hazard is known as a pyroclastic flow and is when High-speed avalanches of hot ash, rock fragments, and gas move down the sides of a volcano during explosive eruptions or when the steep edge of a dome breaks apart and collapses. Thesepyroclastic flows, which can reach 1500 degrees F and move at 100-150 miles per hour, are capable of knocking down and burning everything in their paths. A similar hazard is known as a pyroclastic surge which is more energetic and has a dilute mixture of searing gas and rock fragments. They can move over ridges easily whereas flows tend to follow valleys (Myers Brantley, 1995). Secondary Volcanic Hazards Hazards that are not a direct result of the initial blast can be classed as secondary. Mud and debris flows are known as lahars and are initiated by large landslides of water-saturated debris, heavy rainfall eroding volcanic deposits, sudden melting of snow or ice near a vent or the breakout of water from glaciers, crater lakes or from lakes dammed by eruptions (Tilling, Topinka, Swanson, 1990). These are also very destructive and range greatly in size from several centimetres in size to kilometres and in speed from less than a metre per second to tens of metres per second. Most of the time an earthquake proceeds a volcanic eruption due to the imminent release of the pressures that have built up inside. An earthquake can be extremely dangerous in itself, so when coupled with an eruption it can be devastating. The main hazard is shaking and ground rupture which can lead to severe damage of buildings and in turn cause loss of life. They are largely dependent on the local geological and geomorphological conditions which can either amplify or reduce wave propagation (Perkins Boatwright, 1995). For example, a city built on a river bed is far more vulnerable due to the phenomenon of liquefaction which amplifies the size of the waves due to soil temporarily losing its strength and transforming into a liquid. Damage to electrical power lines or gas mains can also cause fires to break out and in some cases they may be extremely difficult to put out due to water mains bursting which would incur a loss of pressure. Reducing the risks from these hazards One of the most important processes involved in reducing the risks imposed by a volcano is monitoring. According to (Brantley Topinka, 1984) Volcano monitoring involves a variety of measurements and observations designed to detect changes at the surface of a volcano that reflect increasing pressure and stresses caused by the movement of magma, or molten rock, within or beneath it. There are many measurements that are taken in order to build up a large picture of the volcano and ultimately predict to the nearest accuracy possible when an eruption is going to take place. The movement of the ground is closely recorded because increased movement can indicate an upcoming eruption due to the movement of magma underground. Standard levelling surveys are used to obtain changes in the elevation, the tilt is measured and electronic distance measurement is also used. When no earthquakes or measurable ground movement occurs there are geophysical properties which can be measured including electr ical conductivity, magnetic field strength and the force of gravity. Once again, changes in any of these values can indicate the movement of magma. Changes in the composition or emission rate of sulphur dioxide and other gases from a volcano can also indicate a variation in magma supply rate or a change in magma type. Modified from (Wright Pierson, 1992) In addition to monitoring, detailed hazard maps are drawn which show the areas that are likely to be effected during an eruption event. Figure 3 is a simplified version for the Mount St. Helens volcano. These maps are extremely useful because they allow resources to be allocated to the parts that need it the most. For example any settlements in immediate danger from the volcano must be evacuated first, and so on. The final piece in the hazard reduction puzzle is communication. No matter how precise the information regarding an eruption is, it is useless unless this information is successfully conveyed to the people at risk and they are in a position where they understand and can take action. The following is what the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program does in order to try and achieve this: participatesin volcano-emergency planning workshops and emergency-response exercises convenesinternational, regional, and local workshops focused on volcano-hazard issues prepareseducational materials with partners, including exhibits, fact sheets, booklets, video programs, and maps collaborateswith emergency-management specialists to develop effective warning schemes meetswith community leaders and residents wanting information about potentially dangerous volcanoes in their area workswith the news media and media producers leadseducational field trips to active and potentially dangerous volcanoes for the public, officials, local residents, educators, and students helpseducators and students with classroom presentations, teacher workshops, field trips, and activities (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009). It is clear that volcanoes pose a huge threat to peoples safety. However, when a high amount of monitoring, planning and communication takes place it is usually possible to predict eruptions to a level accurate enough to save lives. The main limiting factor is the money available to spend (or the money willing to be spent) on all of these things by a countrys government. This means that for example, people in the USA and Canada can feel relatively safe about the threat to them from most of their volcanoes whereas people living in some countries of Africa cannot.